Mucous Membranes

Definition of Mucous Membranes:

The membranes, such as the mouth, nose, anus, and vagina, that line the cavities and canals of the body which communicate with the air.

Also: Mucosa, Mucous Membrane, Mucus Membranes

Topics Related to Mucous Membranes

A Low IgA Level

...the condition
“...It protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways, and digestive tract...”

Allergic Rhinitis

...related topic
“Inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes that is caused by specific allergen(s)...”
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More topics Related to Mucous Membranes

Allergic Rhinitis / Hay Fever

...the condition
“...During an allergic episode, the immune system releases chemicals that cause the mucous membrane inside the nose to become swollen, and excess mucus to be produced...”
...recommendation Elderberry / Sambucol
“...It also helps to reduce mast cell histamine response and reduce mucosa inflammation.”
...recommendation Eyebright
“Eyebright is both astringent and anti-inflammatory, and decreases the hypersensitive response of the mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, throat, and ears, thereby reducing and soothing swollen, irritated tissues.”
...recommendation Goldenseal
“...It is anti-inflammatory to the mucous membranes, and helps reduce and soothe swollen, irritated tissues.”

Anorexia / Starvation Tendency

...recommendation Oatstraw
“A nerve tonic and antidepressant, it also relieves irritation of mucous membranes.  This herb is slow to start acting but is long-lasting.”
...recommendation Licorice Root
“Possesses antidepressant effects, and heals mucous membranes of the digestive tract.”

Atrophic Gastritis

...related topic
“Chronic inflammation of the stomach that causes the breakdown of the mucous membranes and a reduction in the number of functioning stomach cells...”
...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
“...Patients with antibodies to parietal cells (PCA) or intrinsic factor, or both, have atrophy of the fundal mucosa (Type A) and a very high rate of pernicious anemia, often associated with other autoimmune endocrine disorders...”

Bacterial Dysbiosis

...the condition
“...Oligosaccharides found in some vegetables, carrots in particular, inhibit the binding of enterobacteria to the intestinal mucosa.  Bacterial antigens may elicit dysfunctional immune responses which contribute to autoimmune diseases of the bowel and of connective tissue.”

Boron a treatment
“...These substances are readily absorbed by damaged skin and by mucous membranes.  50% of borate is eliminated via the kidneys in the first 12 hours, and 90% of the remainder is gone within a week, in all but extreme doses...”


...related topic
“Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes, frequently accompanied by cough, overproduction of mucus, and coughing up of sputum...”


...related topic
“Infection of the skin or mucous membrane with any species of candida, usually Candida albicans...”

Carbohydrate Intolerance

...the condition
“...Secondary lactase deficiency occurs secondary to conditions which damage the small-bowel mucosa.  Examples include Celiac Disease, Tropical Sprue, and acute gastrointestinal infections...”


...related topic
“Inflamed mucous membranes, an older term that usually implied excess secretions, particularly with congestion.”

Cayenne Pepper a treatment
“...Interestingly, while powders of this spicy fruit are extremely irritating to mucous membranes (it is cayenne that is used to make "pepper spray"), capsaicin-containing ointments are now being used to treat pain topically...”

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

...the condition
“...Signs and symptoms include ... Increased incidence of infections in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes...”

Clostridium Difficile Infection

...the condition
“...It may indicate the presence of raised, yellowish-white, 2-10mm plaques on the intestinal mucosa.  An abdominal CT scan may be used to look for CDI complications such as sepsis...”


...related topic
“Colon inflammation, usually involving the mucus membranes.  Mucus colitis is a type with cramps, periods of constipation, and copious discharge of mucus with feces...”


...related topic
Mucous membrane covering the rear surface of the eyelids and the top surface of the eyeball...”

Crohn's Disease

...the condition
“...When the intestinal immune system does not function properly, many white blood cells accumulate in the inner lining (mucosa) of the gut...”


...related topic
“Mucus in the urine, usually following infection or from chronic congestion of the bladder mucosa.”


...related topic
“An agent which soothes and relieves irritation, especially of the mucous membranes.”


...the condition
“...Endoscopy usually is more specific than X-ray studies because it allows direct inspection of the mucosa, detection of superficial lesions, and the ability to biopsy the mucosa...”

Dyspepsia / Poor Digestion

...the condition
“...Gastric Mucosal Tears: Lacerations in the mucosa of the gastroesophageal junction, where the esophagus passes through the diaphragm, or in the lining of the lower esophagus...”
...relationship to Fluoride Toxicity
“Studies have shown that ingested fluoride damages gastroduodenal mucosa.  Gastrointestinal discomfort can be an early warning sign of fluorosis, so fluoride toxicity should be considered a possible reason for non-ulcer dyspepsia and gastrointestinal discomfort in...”


...related topic
“Small, flat hemorrhagic spots on the skin or mucous membranes caused by the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels marked by a livid black-and-blue or purple spot or area.”

Entamoeba Infection

...the condition
“...The commensal or non-invasive luminal form causes no signs or symptoms of disease; the pathogenic or invasive form invades the intestinal mucosa and produces dysentery and may give rise to extra-intestinal lesions via the blood, mainly to the liver...”


...related topic
“...Epithelial cells form epithelial tissues such as skin and mucous membranes.”

Eyebright a treatment
“...It causes the mucous membrane tissue that makes up the eye to tighten...”

Fenugreek a treatment
“...It is the mucilage content that makes it good for soothing mucous membranes; especially those of the digestive tract...”

Fungal Skin / Nail Infection

...the condition
“...Oral thrush, a form of candida infection found on the mucous membranes of the mouth, may be a sign of HIV infection or other immunodeficiency disorders when it occurs in adults...”

Giardiasis Infection

...recommendation High/Increased Fiber Diet
“...authors of the study concluded that the fiber induced an increase in mucous secretion and, in combination with the bulk movement of insoluble fiber, reduced trophozoite attachment to the intestinal mucosa and decreased the probability of trophozoites establishing and maintaining mucosal colonization.”

Glucosamine / Chondroitin Sulfate a treatment
“...NAG is also the precursor to mucin, one of the components lining the gut wall and other mucous membranes.  This makes NAG an excellent ingredient for the support of the gut wall lining...”

Gotu Kola a treatment
“...radiotherapy of laryngectomy & pharyngolaryngectomy patients; Tuberculosis; enlarged glands; periodontal conditions; as snuff for ozena (atrophic rhinitis, there is loss & shrinkage of the ciliated mucous membrane & of the turbinate bones)...”

Heartburn / GERD / Acid Reflux

...the condition
“...Antibiotics can also affect the mucous membrane, making it more vulnerable to acids...”

Herpes Simplex Type I

...the condition
“...Herpes simplex virus type I is transmitted by oral and respiratory secretions, affects the skin and mucous membranes and commonly produces cold sores or fever blisters...”

Hookworm Infection

...the condition
“...The worms clamp onto the mucosa abrading the surface and sucking the blood...”


...the condition
“...Individuals may also bleed unexpectedly and heavily from the nose or other mucous membranes, and from the gastrointestinal or urinary tracts...”

IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)

...recommendation Licorice Root
“Licorice root extract can help with IBS as it is anti-inflammatory and is said to soothe irritated intestinal mucous membranes by stimulating mucus production...”
...recommendation Vitamin A
“...Vitamin A deficiency can worsen diarrhea symptoms in IBS because of reduced mucous membrane health.  Diarrhea can also cause loss of vitamin A, which leads to a vicious cycle.”

Immune System Imbalance (TH2 Dominance)

...recommendation Digestive Enzyme (Trial)
“...Quality proteins support mucous membrane integrity.”

Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut

...the condition
“...The barrier maintained by a healthy intestinal mucosa is an incomplete one to begin with...”


...the condition
“...Jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood)...”

Kaposi's Sarcoma

...the condition
“Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of malignant tumor of the blood vessels that develops most commonly on the skin and mucous membranes that line the mouth, nose and anus, but may also affect internal organs – particularly the lymph nodes), lungs and organs of the digestive system such as the liver, stomach and...”

Lactoferrin a treatment
“...Lactoferrin is a multifunctional protein with antimicrobial activity (bactericide and fungicide), that is also part of the body's innate defense system, mainly in the mucous membranes.  Lactoferrin is considered a multi-tasking protein, playing several biological roles...”


...related topic
“Thickened, white patch on mucous membrane of the mouth, in some cases precancerous.”

Licorice Root a treatment
“...It possesses antidepressant effects, and heals mucous membranes of the digestive tract...”

Marshmallow Root a treatment
“...Marshmallow root is used mostly as a demulcent, having soothing properties on various mucous membranes such as the lungs and urinary tract...”

Mast Cells

...related topic
“These are a group of cells that line the capillaries of tissues that come in contact with the outside, for example skin, sinuses, and lung mucosa.  They, like their first cousin basophils, are produced in the red bone marrow and migrate to the appropriate tissues, where they stay...”
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More topics Related to Mucous Membranes

Mercury Toxicity (Amalgam Illness)

...our question about Mercury amalgam tooth fillings
“...In its vapor form the mercury is fat-soluble, and favors lungs and mucous membranes at first.  Then it crosses tissue barriers, including the blood-brain barrier and also the placenta...”


...related topic
“Preparation consisting of a solution in water of the viscous principles of plants; used as a soothing application to mucous membranes.”


...related topic
“Made up of or involving both typical skin and mucous membrane.”


...related topic
“The viscous, slippery substance that consists chiefly of mucin, water, cells, and inorganic salts and is secreted as a protective lubricant coating by cells and glands of the mucous membranes.”

Mullein a treatment
“...Mullein contains high amounts of mucilage and saponins, making it an excellent agent for soothing mucous membranes.  Mullein seems to be particularly helpful – and has a history of use – for respiratory conditions including coughs, colds, emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma...”

Nasal Polyps

...the condition
“...Usually in both sides of the nose, polyps are essentially outgrowths of the nasal mucosa.  The polyps are smooth, gelatinous, semi-translucent, pear-shaped, and pink to white in color...”


...our question about Frequency of infections
“The clinical signs of neutropenia manifest as infections, most commonly of the mucous membranes.  Skin is the second most common infection site, manifesting as ulcers, abscesses, and rashes...”

Nutritional Deficiency

...the condition
“...Symptoms include ... protruding soft inner mucous membrane of the mouth that becomes visible with the lips...”

Oatstraw a treatment
“Oatstraw is a nerve tonic, antidepressant, and relieves irritation of mucous membranes.  This herb is slow to start acting but is long-lasting.”

Oral Lichen Planus

...the condition
“Oral lichen planus is an autoimmune inflammatory condition affecting the mucous membranes of the mouth...”
...recommendation Vitamin A
“...This doesn't cause the same side-effects as corticosteroids, but may irritate the mucous membranes of the mouth.”

Osteoporosis - Osteopenia

...the condition
“...Calcium can irritate the gastro-intestinal mucosa and should be used with care in patients with ulceration...”

Ovarian Cysts

...recommendation Wild Yam
“...Once released, diosgenin is absorbed through the mucous membranes of the intestines into the bloodstream...”

Pharyngitis ("Strep Throat")

...recommendation Slippery Elm
“For coating and soothing irritated or inflamed mucous membranes add 1 tablespoon of dried slippery elm per cup of hot water...”

Poor Small Intestine Health

...the condition
“...Goblet cells in the mucosa also produce mucus...”

Poor/Slow Wound Healing

...the condition
“...Ulcers are open sores on the skin (or a mucous membrane) that cause destruction of surface tissue...”

Premature/Signs of Aging

...the condition
“...Other times, atrophy or tissue wasting can occur, as in muscle weakness with lack of exercise, mucous membrane and glandular deterioration with decreased hormone levels and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease...”

Probiotics a treatment
“...Problems with Lactobacillus administration include the failure of organisms to adhere to the intestinal mucosa or to survive damage from gastric acid and bile...”


...related topic
“Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the rectum.”


...related topic
“Bleeding into the tissues directly beneath skin or mucous membranes yielding a bruise or many red or purple petechia (flat, pin-head sized spots).”


...the condition
“...It is caused by a rhabdovirus which is relatively unstable in the environment, requiring fresh contact with mucous membranes to establish infection...”

Rectal Cancer

...the condition
“...Mitomycin is associated with bone marrow, kidney, mucous membrane, and pulmonary toxicity, as well as kidney failure...”


...related topic
“Inflammation of the sinus membranes and nasal mucous membrane, sometimes extending to the eyes and ears...”


...related topic
“...It is marked by weakness, anemia, edema, spongy gums, often with open sores in the mouth and loosening of the teeth, bleeding in the mucous membranes, and hard bumps of the muscles of the legs.”

Silicon / Silica a treatment
“...Silicon is very beneficial in all healing processes, and protects the body against many infectious diseases, such as; upper respiratory infections (particularly the mucous membranes), tuberculosis, skin infections, etc...”


...the condition
“...These mucous membranes may become infected or inflamed because of a cold or allergy and can swell up and block the nasal passages...”

Slippery Elm a treatment
“...They beat the bark into a powder and added water to create a "slippery" concoction ideal for soothing mucous membranes and healing scrapes...”

Spicy Foods Avoidance a treatment
“...The irritation caused by capsaicin can lead to hyperemia (excess organ blood flow), inflammation, and even erosion of the gastric mucosa.  The contents of the stomach and intestines may move faster, causing abdominal pain and diarrhea...”

STD Gonorrhea

...the condition
“Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in mucous membranes of the body...”

STD Syphilis

...the condition
“...It is characterized by changes in skin, mucous membranes, internal organs and the central nervous system...”


...related topic
“...The stomach mucosa contains cells which secrete hydrochloric acid and this in turn activates the other gastric enzymes pepsin and rennin...”


...related topic
“Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.”

Strongyloides stercoralis Infection

...the condition
“...Parasitic females anchor themselves with their mouths to the mucosa of the small intestine or burrow their anterior ends into the submucosa...”

Tendency To Develop Polyps

...the condition
“A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue, typically benign and with a stalk, protruding from a mucous membrane.  Polyps can vary in size, shape and location, they may be single or multiple...”

TMJ Problems

...the condition
“...The TMJ Association lists these symptoms because TMJ implant patients frequently report them ... Sjögren's Syndrome (dry eyes, dry mouth and dry mucous membranes)...”

Topical Applications a treatment
“A topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, anus, throat, eyes and ears...”


...related topic
“...It is lined with mucous membranes and ciliated epithelia.”


...related topic
“Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi.”


...related topic
“Lesion on the skin or mucous membrane.”

Ulcerative Colitis

...the condition
“...Ulcerative colitis involves only the colonic mucosa, and the lesions are uniform and continuous with no areas of normal tissue interspersed between the diseased mucosa...”

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

...the condition
“ N-9 or other antibiotics alters the vaginal pH and natural flora, allowing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus to proliferate, colonize and adhere to the vaginal mucosa.  The odds that a woman exposed to condoms coated with N-9 would get a UTI were found to be 3 times higher than for sexually active women who did not use coated condoms...”
...relationship to Vitamin A Requirement
“...A deficiency results in keratinization of mucus membranes that line the respiratory tract, intestines, urinary tract and epithelium of the eye...”

Vaginal Dryness

...recommendation Korean Ginseng
“...Women with a history of vaginal dryness and painful intercourse were asked to volunteer for biopsies of the vaginal mucosa.  When examined microscopically, the biopsy specimens showed typical atrophy, with thinned epithelial layer and little to no mucous production...”

Vitamin A a treatment
“...Since vitamin A is important for the body's first line of defense, the mucous membrane, it may well be the anti-infective vitamin of choice...”

Vitamin A Requirement

...the condition
“...for innumerable biological functions – night and color vision, wound healing, bone and tooth formation, healthy skin, normal growth, reproductive and adrenal function, cartilage development, mucous membranes/secretions and lactation...”

Vitamin B2 Requirement

...the condition
“...Symptoms of vitamin B2 deficiency include sensitivity or inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth; cracks or sores at the corners of the mouth, called cheilosis; a red, sore tongue; eye redness or sensitivity to light, burning eyes, eye fatigue, or a dry, sandy...”

Vitamin B6 Requirement

...the condition
“...Severe B6 depletion may result in depression, nausea, vomiting, mucous membrane lesions, seborrheic dermatitis, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, hyperacusis, hyperirritability, altered mobility and alertness, abnormal head movements and convulsions.”

Yeast / Candida Infection

...the condition
“...Rhizoids can penetrate mucosa or intestinal walls, leaving microscopic holes and allowing toxins, undigested food particles and bacteria and yeast to enter the bloodstream...”
...our question about White coated tongue
“...Candida is normally found on skin or mucous membranes.  However, if the environment inside the mouth or throat becomes imbalanced, Candida can multiply...”
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