Definition of Sodium:

An essential mineral that our bodies regulate and conserve.  Excess sodium retention increases the fluid volume (edema) and low sodium leads to less fluid and relative dehydration.  The adult body averages a total content of over 100 grams of sodium, of which a surprising one-third is in bone.  A small amount of sodium does get into cell interiors, but this represents only about ten percent of the body content.  The remaining 57 percent or so of the body sodium content is in the fluid immediately surrounding the cells, where it is the major cation (positive ion).  The role of sodium in the extracellular fluid is maintaining osmotic equilibrium (the proper difference in ions dissolved in the fluids inside and outside the cell) and extracellular fluid volume.  Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle tone and nutrient transport.  All of these functions are interrelated with potassium.

Topics Related to Sodium


...the condition
“...This deprives the body of alkaline minerals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium and leaves us prone to chronic and degenerative diseases...”

Addison's Disease

...the condition
“...These may include an elevated blood level of potassium, a low blood level of sodium, a shift in the ratio of certain white blood cells, or surprising changes on an EKG or chest X-ray that are caused by high potassium or low blood volume...”
...related topic
“A condition characterized by the chronic destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increased loss of sodium and water in the urine, muscle weakness and low blood pressure...”
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More topics Related to Sodium


...related topic
“...The adrenals control the body's potassium/sodium balance, which is vital for energy production...”

Allergic Rhinitis / Hay Fever

...recommendation Conventional Drug Use
“...Cromolyn sodium is the only preventative drug choice; works as well as antihistamines but does not cause drowsiness; take continuously or it will not work effectively; it is virtually without side-effects...”


...the condition
“...In people with chronic anxiety unrelated to life events, an injection of sodium lactate will trigger a panic attack...”


...recommendation Food Additive Avoidance
“...Some asthmatics react to additives such as sulfur dioxide, tartrazine (yellow dye #5), and sodium benzoate, as well as natural salicylates (aspirin-like substances found in many foods)...”
...recommendation Selenium
“...In a small double-blind trial, supplementation with 100mcg of sodium selenite (a form of selenium) per day for 14 weeks resulted in clinical improvement in six of eleven patients, compared with only one of ten in the placebo group...”
...recommendation Salt Intake Reduction
“...At least four double-blind trials have provided limited evidence of clinical improvement following a period of sodium restriction...”

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

...recommendation Food Additive Avoidance
“...the following food additives be avoided: Amaranth, Benzoic Acid, BHA, BHT, Brilliant Blue FCF, Caramel, Carmine, Carminic Acid, Cochineal, FCFV, Indigo, Potassium Nitrate, Quinoline Yellow, Red 2G, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium Nitrate, Sulfur Dioxide, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Try to avoid foods, such as the following, with high salicylate content, to see if their removal causes a difference in...”

Banana a treatment
“...It also contains 2gm of protein, 4gm of fiber and only 2mg of sodium.  There are 36gm of carbohydrates in a large banana...”

Bayberry a treatment
“...Studies have shown that myricadiol influences sodium and potassium metabolism...”

Boron a treatment
“...Boron in the form of its sodium salt has been used by man for over 2,500 years as a flux for welding gold and as an embalming agent by the Egyptians...”

Budd-Chiari Syndrome

...the condition
“...In some cases, treatment for Budd-Chiari syndrome is as simple as breaking up blood clots using anti-clotting medication, as well as diuretics and restricting sodium intake.  Most patients, however, require surgery to unblock the veins inside the liver...”

Calcium a treatment
“...In this sense, it is similar to sodium citrate.  Calcium citrate is also used as a water softener because the citrate ions can chelate unwanted metal ions...”

Cancer, General

...recommendation Coffee Enema
“...According to this theory, when cells are challenged by poisons, oxygen deprivation, malnutrition or a physical trauma they lose potassium, take on sodium and chloride, and swell up with excess water...”

Canker Sores (Aphthous Ulcers)

...recommendation Personal Hygiene Changes
“It may be a good idea to avoid toothpaste that contains sodium lauryl sulfate because it breaks up a protective barrier on the teeth and gums, which results in a greater frequency of ulcers...”

Caprylic acid a treatment
“...Caprylic Acid (often used in its stable form sodium caprylate) is an 8-carbon fatty acid...”

Chemical Avoidance a treatment
“...Not long ago, there were few alternatives for those wishing to avoid chemicals other than to use old-fashioned cleaning products such as plain soaps or sodium bicarbonate to wash clothes and for general cleaning, borax for washing floors, vinegar for cleaning windows, and washing soda for cleaning toilets...”

Chlorine Bleach a treatment
“Household bleach, also known as chlorine bleach or sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), is very alkaline (pH level of 11) and is mainly used in the home for whitening clothes, removing stains, and general disinfecting...”

Chronic Fatigue / Fibromyalgia Syndrome

...recommendation Raw Food Diet
“...Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering and urinary sodium dropped to 13 of the beginning value indicating good diet compliance...”

Chronic Inflammation

...recommendation Bioflavonoids
“...Quercetin is known to reduce histamine release from some inflammatory white blood cells; Quercetin has been likened to the anti-inflammatory drug cromolyn sodium, which acts in a similar fashion; Quercetin has also been shown to prevent release of leukotrienes – prostaglandin-like substances that also cause inflammation...”

Chronic Renal Insufficiency

...recommendation Baking Soda
“Reported in Natural News, August 26, 2009: Researchers in the United Kingdom have made a breakthrough in the treatment of advanced CKD – using a daily dose of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)...”

Cochlear Fluid

...related topic
“...Perilymph is similar to blood plasma, high in sodium, and stimulates the auditory hair cells inside the ear which translate sound vibrations into electrochemical impulses that are interpreted by the brain as sound.”

Colon Cleansing a treatment
“...Your colon absorbs water and sodium to maintain your body's fluid and electrolyte balance...”

Congestive Heart Failure

...our question about Edema of the abdomen
“The weakened heart muscles may not be able to supply enough blood to the kidneys, which then begin to lose their normal ability to excrete salt (sodium) and water...”

Consequences of Poor Diet

...our question about Eating processed meats
“...Processed meat products are usually manufactured with a carcinogenic ingredient known as sodium nitrite.  This is used as a color fixer by meat companies to turn packaged meats a bright red color so they look fresh...”

Coronary Disease / Heart Attack

...recommendation Increased Legume Consumption
“...Legumes contain low levels of sodium and high levels of potassium, calcium and magnesium – a combination that is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease...”

Corticosteroids a treatment
“...Among the drugs that may interact with corticosteroids are: Insulin and diabetes medicines; Heart medicine such as digitalis; Diuretics (water pills); Medicine containing potassium or sodium; Immunizations (vaccinations); Cyclosporine (Sandimmune); Blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin); Estrogen drugs, such as conjugated estrogens (Premarin) or oral contraceptives; Antacids...”

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

...the condition
“...Opiate drugs can help relieve pain if it occurs, and the drugs clonazepam and sodium valproate may help relieve myoclonus...”

Cystic Fibrosis

...the condition
“...It measures the amount of salt (sodium chloride) in the sweat...”

Dairy Products Avoidance a treatment
“...The long list of foods and ingredients to avoid includes ... sodium caseinate...”


...our question about Numb/burning/tingling extremities
“...Sodium is an electrolyte involved in nerve signaling, so an imbalance can cause numbness, burning, or tingling sensations.”


...the condition
“...Decreased urine sodium and volume due to marked fluid and electrolyte loss in stool...”


...related topic
“An agent increasing urine flow, causing the kidneys to excrete more than the usual amount of sodium, potassium and water.”

Diuretics a treatment
“...Diuretics help rid the body of water and salt by making the kidneys excrete more sodium into the urine...”

Edema (Water Retention)

...recommendation Ginkgo Biloba
“Idiopathic cyclic edema is characterized by water and sodium retention with secondary hyperaldosteronism (over-production of aldosterone) due to capillary hyperpermeability...”


...the condition
“...Patients with very severe encephalitis are at risk for systemic (body wide) complications including shock, low oxygen, low blood pressure, and low sodium levels.  Any potentially life-threatening complication should be addressed immediately with the appropriate treatments...”

Excess Salt Consumption

...the condition
“...Sodium is the major electrolyte that maintains normal fluid outside the cells...”
...relationship to Alzheimer's Disease
“...The good news is that sedentary older adults showed no cognitive decline over the three years if they had low sodium intake.”
...recommendation Processed Foods Avoidance
“...If the sodium content per 100gm is greater than 0.2gm, the food is high in salt.”

Fecal Softener

...related topic
“...An example is docusate sodium, an anionic surfactant that also exerts a stimulant laxative effect similar to that of the anthraquinones.”

Food Additive Avoidance a treatment
“...The most commonly used preservatives in food are sodium benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate esters, and sulfur dioxide...”


...recommendation Salt Intake Reduction
“If you have IgAN with hypertension or edema, you may be asked to reduce sodium intake.  An actual 'renal diet' (low protein, low potassium, low sodium, low phosphorus, high calories) is not required until IgAN has progressed to more advanced renal failure...”


...the condition
“...cola, tea, coffee) and some food additives (monosodium, glutamate, sodium nitrate) are all possible triggers...”

Heartburn / GERD / Acid Reflux

...recommendation Bladderwrack
“An over-the-counter antacid, Gaviscon®, containing magnesium carbonate and sodium alginate (the sodium salt of alginic acid, an active component of bladderwrack), has been shown to effectively relieve the symptoms of heartburn compared to other antacids in a double-blind...”

Heat Exhaustion

...the condition
“...Sweat not only contains substantial amounts of sodium (1gm per liter), but also modest amounts of potassium and small amounts of minerals such as iron and calcium...”
...recommendation Increased Salt Consumption
“Most commercial sports drinks have modest sodium content in order to make them more palatable...”

Heavy Metal Toxicity

...recommendation High/Increased Fiber Diet
Sodium alginate as well as other gel-forming fibers have been shown to inhibit heavy metal uptake in the gut.”

Homeopathic Remedies a treatment
“...Examples include Natrum muriaticum (sodium chloride; table salt), Lachesis muta (the venom of the bushmaster snake), Opium, and Thyroidinum (thyroid hormone)...”

Honey a treatment
“...Honey is composed of sugars such as glucose and fructose, and minerals such as magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium chlorine, sulfur, iron and phosphate...”

Hot Drinks a treatment
“...Prepared broths can be high in sodium.  Look for the kind labeled low-salt...”


...related topic
“An excess of sodium in the blood: a short-lived condition since the body retains water until the concentration is back to normal, and the blood volume (as well as blood pressure) has increased.”

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

...the condition
“...Environmental factors (e.g. dietary sodium, obesity, stress) seem to act only in genetically susceptible persons...”
...our question about Hypertension in parents
“...Environmental factors such as dietary sodium, obesity and stress seem to act only in genetically susceptible persons.”
...recommendation Salt Intake Reduction
“...Salt restriction is recommended for those individuals with hypertension who are "salt-sensitive" or are prone to retaining sodium, gaining weight, and developing a rise in blood pressure as a result of a high-salt diet...”
...recommendation Potassium
“...This is the inverse of excess sodium.  Potassium and sodium are needed in balance...”


...recommendation Selenium
“...Selenium supplementation with 200mcg of sodium selenite may improve the inflammatory activity seen in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, but whether this effect is specific for autoimmune thyroiditis or may also be effective in other...”

Hyponatremia (Low Blood Sodium Level)

...the condition
“Alternative names: Low Blood Sodium Level, Low Sodium, Salt Need, Salt Intake Requirement Hyponatremia is a lower-than-normal concentration of sodium in the blood...”
...recommendation Increased Salt Consumption
“The concentration of sodium in the blood plasma depends on the total amount of sodium and water in the circulatory system...”


...the condition
“...As the deficiency becomes more serious or has a more rapid onset (Addison crisis), symptoms of confusion, stupor, psychosis, abnormal electrolytes (low serum sodium, elevated serum potassium), and vascular collapse (low blood pressure and shock) can occur...”

Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)

...recommendation Conventional Drug Use
“...It works by promoting sodium retention by the kidney, thereby causing fluid retention and some swelling, which is necessary to improve blood pressure...”
...recommendation Increased Salt Consumption
“...One of the most common – and treatable – problems identified in those with NMH (Neurally Mediated Hypotension) is a low dietary salt (sodium) intake.  Salt helps us retain fluid in the blood vessels, and helps maintain a healthy blood pressure...”
...recommendation Increased Water Consumption
“...Sports drinks that are high in sodium and potassium are recommended, especially during exercise or in hot weather.”
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More topics Related to Sodium

Increased Salt Consumption a treatment
“Foods high in organic sodium include pears, watermelon, celery, cabbage, okra and cucumber.”

Increased Water Consumption a treatment
“...When drinking lots of water throughout the day, salts (especially sodium) are washed through the kidneys and voided...”

Intestinal Obstruction

...the condition
“...This leads to fluid loss, dehydration and electrolyte imbalances involving sodium, potassium and chloride...”

Kidney Disease

...the condition
“...Most of the nephric filtrate is then recycled: hormones regulate the process in which water, glucose, amino acids, sodium and other important nutrients are resorbed into the bloodstream...”

Kidney Stones (Urolithiasis)

...the condition
“...Nutritional factors, such as a diet high in sodium, increase risk of kidney stone formation...”


...related topic
“...The kidneys recycle chemicals such as sodium, phosphorus, and potassium and thus regulate their levels...”

Leg Cramps At Night

...the condition
“...Low levels of certain minerals known as electrolytes – magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium – have long been linked to leg cramps...”

Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency

...the condition
“...For aldosterone deficiency, fludrocortisone acetate can be used to help balance sodium and potassium, and increase water retention.”

Magnesium a treatment
“...To function optimally, magnesium must be balanced in the body with calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium chloride.  If calcium intake is increased, magnesium should be increased also...”
...related topic
“...It is the fifth mineral in abundance within the body – behind calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium.  Although about 70 percent of the body's magnesium is contained in the teeth and bones, its most important functions are carried out by the remainder which is present in the cells of the soft...”

Magnesium Requirement

...the condition
“...The DASH study (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) suggested that high blood pressure could be significantly lowered by a diet high in magnesium, potassium, and calcium, and low in sodium and fat.  In another study, the effect of various nutritional factors on incidence of high blood pressure was examined in over 30,000 U.S. male health professionals...”


...the condition
“ airways that can constrict in the presence of histamine; Corticosteroids can be used topically, inhaled, or systemically to reduce inflammation; Steroids treat nutrient malabsorption; Cromolyn sodium may reduce cramping in the abdomen...”

Meniere's Disease

...the condition
“...Sodium and potassium are essential for the proper function of nerve cells in the brain and inner ear, but too much sodium can make the inner ear more sensitive or reactive, and thus more susceptible...”

Mercury Toxicity (Amalgam Illness)

...recommendation High/Increased Fiber Diet
Sodium alginate as well as other gel-forming fibers have been shown to inhibit heavy metal uptake in the gut.”


...related topic
“One of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences salt (sodium, potassium) metabolism.”

Multiple Mineral Supplementation a treatment
“...Bulk minerals include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus...”

Muscle Cramps / Twitching

...relationship to Dehydration
“Excess sweating or dehydration can deplete minerals in the body – minerals that are important for good muscle function, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus.”
...recommendation Conventional Drug Avoidance
“Medications such as diuretics or water pills can lead to cramping due to loss of sodium and potassium.”


...related topic
“Agent causing sodium to be excreted into the urine.”

Osmotic Laxative

...related topic
“...The most commonly used osmotic laxatives include magnesium hydroxide ("Milk of Magnesia"), magnesium citrate, magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts), sodium potassium tartrate, lactulose, glycerol and polyethylene glycol...”

Osteoporosis - Osteopenia

...the condition
“...The bisphosphonates disodium etidronate and alendronate sodium reduce bone resorption by inhibiting the osteoclasts...”
...recommendation Salt Intake Reduction
Sodium (salt) tends to leach calcium out of the bones.”


...the condition
“...Natural Allopathic medicines like magnesium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, iodine, selenium and many other such substances are easily combined and incorporated by the body because human physiology has been doing that for millions of years, combining...”

Pancreatic Cancer

...our question about Eating processed meats
“...Researchers pin the blame on sodium nitrite, a chemical used in nearly all processed meats, including sausage, hot dogs, jerkies, bacon, lunch meat, and even meats in canned soup products...”

Panic Attacks

...the condition
“...Additional support for an overly acidic system, apart from breathing, comes from the fact that in people with chronic anxiety unrelated to life events, an injection of sodium lactate can trigger a panic attack...”
...recommendation Alkalizing Agents/Diet
“For people with chronic anxiety unrelated to life events, injection of an acid such as sodium lactate can trigger a panic attack.”

Phosphorus Deficiency

...our question about Energy/stamina
Sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate is often used by endurance athletes in order to increase aerobic capacity and athletic performance...”

Poor Bone Health

...recommendation Salt Intake Reduction
“Because urinary sodium excretion and urinary calcium excretion occur together in the kidneys, increasing the level of dietary sodium triggers urinary calcium losses...”

Poor Cerebral Circulation

...the condition
“...Treatment involves weight loss (if this is part of the problem), sodium restriction, and drugs to reduce pressure, in addition to symptomatic treatments if these do not subside...”

Poor Small Intestine Health

...the condition
“...Lipase, amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and sodium bicarbonate are received from the pancreas upon hormonal signals from pancreozymin and other hormones (produced in the small intestine) and neural signals from the vagus nerve...”

Potassium a treatment
“...It is used to regulate sodium, calcium, as well as a host of other nutrients...”
...related topic
“...Our bodies contain more than twice as much potassium as sodium (typically 9oz versus 4oz)...”

Potassium Need

...the condition
“...Potassium balances sodium in the body to regulate hydration...”
...our question about Your skin's elasticity
“...The skin on the back of one's hand, when pinched, should snap back like a fresh rubber band; if there is not enough potassium or too much sodium then the tissues will start to harden and return to their resting position more slowly.”
...recommendation Increased Fruit/Vegetable Consumption
“A fresh fruit and vegetable diet has about a hundred times more potassium than sodium.”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS C (Craving)

...the condition
“...Sodium chloride (ordinary salt) enhances insulin response to glucose ingestion, and decreased pancreatic magnesium levels result in increased secretion of insulin in response to glucose...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS H (Headache)

...recommendation Magnesium
“...In laboratory animals, a pyridoxine deficiency at the renal level decreases the kidneys' ability to secrete sodium.  In addition, since pyridoxine requires magnesium for phosphorylation to its active form, a magnesium deficiency can lead to decreased B6 activity...”

Problems Caused By Being Overweight

...the condition
“...Two proposed mechanisms underlying this correlation are the stimulation of sodium retention and increased catecholamine release, which are results of increased sodium sensitivity and hyperinsulinemia...”

Progesterone Low or Estrogen Dominance

...the condition
“...Estrogen and most of the synthetic progestins increase intracellular sodium and water uptake...”

Prostaglandin E

...related topic
“...These two, if made by the kidneys, slow sodium reabsorption; if within the uterus, induce a stronger response from less stimulus; if made in the stomach lining inhibit gastric secretion; if secreted by macrophages, target tissues become...”

Radiation Poisoning

...recommendation Sodium Alginate
Sodium alginate is a good chelator for pulling radioactive toxins from the body which have taken that place of their non-radioactive counterparts, for example Iodine 131 and Strontium 90.”

Reduced Water Consumption a treatment
“...Chronic over-consumption of water can cause the relative concentration of important electrolytes in the blood – such as sodium – to drop...”

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome

...the condition
“...Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen sodium (Aleve) may ease pain and inflammation...”

Salt Intake Reduction a treatment
“The mineral sodium occurs naturally in sodium chloride – or common salt...”

Salt Sensitivity

...recommendation Processed Foods Avoidance
“...If the sodium content per 100gm is greater than 0.2gm, the food is high in salt.”
...recommendation Salt Intake Reduction
“On average, only 10% of dietary sodium comes from salt added to food at the table...”

Seizure Disorder

...recommendation against Increased Water Consumption
“...Through a complex process, excessive water intake can lower sodium content in body fluids and predispose one to seizures.”

Selenium a treatment
“...The selenium in drinking water is usually in the form of inorganic sodium selenate and sodium selenite, which are also easily absorbed in the digestive tract...”

Selenium Allergy Protocol a treatment
“...Take 12 dropper full of the above-mentioned sodium selenium solution and mix it into the first container of water and stir...”

Selenium Requirement

...the condition
“...Lymphocytes from volunteers supplemented with selenium (as sodium selenite) at 200mcg per day showed an enhanced response to antigen stimulation and an increased ability to develop into cytotoxic lymphocytes and to destroy tumor cells...”
...our question about Vitamin C supplementation
“The availability of selenium for absorption was reduced almost to zero when sodium selenite (a common form of selenium) and 1gm ascorbic acid were taken together well before any meal...”

Sodium Alginate a treatment
“The chemical compound sodium alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid.”

Stevia a treatment
“...Stevia also contains protein, fibers, carbohydrates, phosphorus, iron, calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, rutin (flavonoid), zinc, vitamin C and vitamin A.”

Stimulant Laxative

...related topic
“...The most common active ingredients include the Anthraquinones (Senna, Aloin, Frangula, Cascara and Powdered rhubarb) and the Diphenylmethane derivatives (Bisacodyl, Sodium picosulfate, Phenolphthalein)...”


...the condition
“...Risk factors for stroke include ... Diets high in alcohol, cholesterol, fat and sodium consumption...”

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

...the condition
“...A subarachnoid hemorrhage also causes shifts in the level of electrolytes, especially sodium, in the blood...”

Sulfite Sensitivity

...the condition
“...There are six names used for sulfites: sulfur dioxide, sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, potassium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and potassium metabisulfite...”


...related topic
“A class of diuretics that increase the excretion of sodium and chloride and accompanying volume of water.”

Torn, weak, or Stretched Ligaments or Tendons

...the condition
“...Sodium morrhuate is another frequently used proliferant...”


...relationship to Dehydration
“Dehydration can cause a loss of electrolytes such as potassium and sodium, which are required for normal muscle control and nerve function...”

Urinalysis a treatment
“...acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid) resulting from either diabetic ketosis or some other form of calorie deprivation (starvation), are easily detected using either dipsticks or test tablets containing sodium nitroprusside...”

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) a treatment
“...Pyridoxine also aids in maintaining sodium and potassium balance and promotes red blood cell formation...”
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