Definition of Adrenal:

The adrenal glands sit on top of each kidney and consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla.  Of the 50 or so hormones the adrenals make, only cortisone and adrenaline are recognized by most people.  Some of these hormones must be produced to preserve life, while others help resist stress.  Other hormones from the adrenals control normal energy output (along with the thyroid) and govern the breakdown of stored energy into quick energy sources.  The medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are specifically designed to help the body deal with stressful situations.  The adrenals control the body's potassium/sodium balance, which is vital for energy production.  They also produce sex hormones in minute amounts, which is important for later years when the gonads drop or cease their production.

Also: Adrenal Gland, Adrenal Glands, Adrenals

Topics Related to Adrenal

A Good Aerobic Exercise Level

...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“Those regularly engaged in exercise and hobbies are less likely to suffer from adrenal problems.”

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) a treatment
“...It stimulates the secretion of other hormones such as hydrocortisone from the adrenal gland.  ACTH secretion is an excellent example of the regulation of a biological system by a negative-feedback mechanism; high levels of adrenocortical steroids in the blood tend to decrease...”
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More topics Related to Adrenal

Addictions / Addictive Tendencies

...the condition
“...Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) helps reduce stress and supports the adrenal glands.  Calcium and Magnesium help nourish the central nervous system and help control tremors by calming the body...”

Addison's Disease

...the condition
“...It occurs when the adrenal glands, located above each kidney, do not produce enough corticosteroids – in particular, the hormone cortisol, and in some cases, the hormone aldosterone...”

Adrenal Cortex

...related topic
“The outer covering of the two adrenal glands that lie atop each kidney...”

Adrenal Insufficiency

...related topic
“A condition in which the adrenal gland is compromised in its production of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, corticosterone or aldosterone...”

Adrenal Medulla

...related topic
“The inner part of the adrenals, derived embryonically from spinal nerve precursors, they secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine; used locally as neurotransmitters, sensitive receptors can be mobilized totally by...”

Alzheimer's Disease

...recommendation Testosterone
“...Increasing levels of adrenal hormones such as cortisol, which rise in response to stress and aging, may also play an important role in Alzheimer's...”

Andropause/Male Menopause

...the condition
“...Testosterone (from the testes), human growth hormone (from the pituitary), and DHEA and androstenedione (from the adrenal gland) levels all begin to drop...”

Anorexia / Starvation Tendency

...recommendation St John's Wort
“Used for depression or anxiety that leads to fatigue and adrenal gland exhaustion.”

Carbohydrate Intolerance

...the condition
“...Hyperinsulinemia can also cause the adrenal gland to over-produce the stress hormone cortisol, resulting in adrenal burnout or adrenal fatigue...”

Chlorophyll a treatment
“...It has been used to ... improve adrenal function...”

Chronic Fatigue / Fibromyalgia Syndrome

...the condition
“...Hormone Imbalances: Consider and treat as necessary hypothyroidism, low or borderline adrenal function, and sex hormone deficiencies...”

Chronic Inflammation

...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“The adrenal glands produce hydrocortisol, the major natural anti-inflammatory steroid in the body...”

Chronic Thyroiditis

...the condition
“...emphasize a basic abnormality in the immune system, which in many patients somehow allows autoimmunity to develop against thyroid tissues as well as other tissues, including those of the stomach, adrenal glands and ovaries...”

Coconut a treatment
“...Within a week, abnormal cortisol levels show improvement indicating adrenal restoration using vitamin B1, B complex and coconut milk...”

Corticosteroids a treatment
“...In children and teenagers, these medicines can stop or slow growth and affect the function of the adrenal glands (small glands located above each kidney, which secrete natural corticosteroids)...”

Cushing's Syndrome / Hypercortisolism

...the condition
“...CRH causes the pituitary to secrete ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands.  When the adrenals receive the ACTH, they respond by releasing cortisol into the bloodstream...”


...the condition
“...Some cysts that form in the adrenal glands are caused by bacterial infections or by parasites...”

Dandelion a treatment
“...The sterol components of dandelion are very similar to the sterol compounds synthesized by our adrenal glands.  It is for this reason that they have been used to support this gland...”


...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“The adrenal glands produce aldosterone, which is a hormone involved in regulating the body's fluid and electrolyte levels...”


...recommendation DHEA
“DHEA is a plentiful adrenal steroid hormone whose quantity decreases with age and may have significant psychiatric effects...”

DHEA a treatment
“Alternative names: Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrostenedione, Androstenolone DHEA is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands.  It peaks at approximately age 25 and then declines...”
...related topic
“Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid produced by the adrenal glands and is the most abundant one found in humans...”

DHEA Elevated

...our question about Early or late puberty onset (female)
“...The elevated levels are normally one of the first biochemical signs of awakening of the reproductive glands, in this case the adrenal gland after the long period of childhood inactivity.”


...related topic
“...The conversion from testosterone to DHT is driven by an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase, which is produced in the prostate, various adrenal glands, and the scalp.”


...the condition
“...which may go unnoticed; Prolonged bed rest, causing weakness, loss of ability to compensate for assuming an upright position; Endocrine diseases – Hormone-producing organs such as the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands affect hydration, salt balance, and function of other organs...”

Elevated Cortisol Levels

...the condition
“...An additional problem of long-term elevations of cortisol is that the adrenal gland may wear itself out and no longer be able to produce even normal levels of cortisol...”

Endocrine Glands

...related topic
“A set of hormone-producing glands including the pituitary, hypothalamus, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus and adrenal glands, as well as the pancreas, ovaries and testes.”


...related topic
“...It contains the stomach, liver tip, pancreas tail, duodenum, spleen, adrenal glands, transverse colon, small intestine, the left and right kidneys, and the left and right ureters.”

Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence)

...the condition
“...DGL is licorice without the portion that can affect the adrenal hormones and raise blood pressure...”

Essential Fatty Acids a treatment
“...Help generate the electrical currents that make our heart beat in an orderly sequence; Are precursors of derivatives such as DHA, which are needed by the most active tissues – brain, retina, adrenal glands and testes; Help our immune system fight infections by enhancing peroxide production; Help prevent the development of allergies...”

Fatty Liver

...the condition
“...One form of fat that the liver produces is called triglycerides, which are important for new cell production for making hormones such as estrogen, testosterone and the adrenal hormones.  In cases of fatty liver, the liver cells accumulate large droplets of fat that consist of mostly triglycerides...”

Female Hair Loss

...the condition
“...Common causes of hair loss or hair thinning in women ... any condition that upsets the ovarian, adrenal, or pituitary axis...”
...relationship to Hypothalamus / Pituitary / Pineal Dysfunction
“Any condition that upsets the ovary, adrenal or pituitary gland may result in hair loss.”

Folic Acid a treatment
“...People who are very stressed or fatigued or who have any loss of adrenal gland function may benefit from additional folic acid...”

Healthy Diet Choices

...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“Healthy and regular eating habits support adrenal function.”

Heavy Metal Toxicity

...the condition
“...constipation, weight loss, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive dysfunction, arthralgias, headache, weakness, convulsions, irritability, impotence, loss of libido, depression, depression of thyroid and adrenal function, chronic renal failure, gout...”

High Female Testosterone Level

...the condition
“...Testosterone is made not only in the testes of men but also in the ovaries of women and in the adrenal glands of both men and women...”


...the condition
“...True hirsutism may be due to ... Defects in the enzymes made by the adrenal glands...”


...the condition
“...When histoplasmosis spreads, it can affect bone marrow, the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, mouth, intestines, brain, and the adrenal glands.  Disseminated histoplasmosis can be fatal, but is extremely rare...”

Hormone Imbalance

...the condition
“...of the hormone cortisol, usually due to overuse of corticosteroid medications; Hormone therapy – Supplementing with external hormones directly influences hormone levels within the body; Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) – A group of genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands and therefore production of cortisol and aldosterone; Adrenal insufficiency – Inadequate amounts of steroid...”


...related topic
“...Examples include adrenal hormones such as corticosteroids and aldosterone; glucagon, growth hormone, insulin, testosterone, estrogens, progestins, progesterone, DHEA, melatonin, and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine...”

Hydrocortisone a treatment
“...It is, however, the identical hormone to one of the naturally occurring compounds secreted by the adrenal gland cortex (outside layer) in response to stress or low blood sugar...”

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

...our question about How much coffee you drink
“Caffeine raises the production of the adrenal hormone cortisol, a stress hormone...”
...recommendation Caffeine/Coffee Avoidance
“Caffeine raises the production of the adrenal hormone cortisol, which causes the blood vessels to constrict and the heart to pump harder, which leads to high blood pressure...”


...the condition
“...Central nervous system changes, adrenal hormone output and detoxification (what the body tries to do when it is not busy digesting food) also contribute to the overall symptom picture...”

Hyponatremia (Low Blood Sodium Level)

...the condition
“...disease or kidney failure, in which the kidneys have difficulty eliminating fluids; Liver cirrhosis; Heart failure; Disorders in organs that control the body's regulation of sodium or water ... The adrenal gland secretes a hormone called aldosterone that travels to the kidneys, where it causes them to retain sodium by not excreting it into the urine...”


...the condition
“...Below is a list of the hormones secreted by the pituitary and their functions ... adrenocorticotropic hormone (stimulates the adrenal gland to secrete hormones that affect metabolism)...”

Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)

...the condition
“...and autonomic neuropathy (nerve problems), such as may be caused by diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular disorders; nutritional diseases amyloidosis; vitamin deficiencies; spinal cord injuries; Adrenal failure (Addisonian crisis); and neuropathies associated with cancer, particularly lung cancer or pancreatic cancer...”


...recommendation Test Adrenal Function
“Cortisol and DHEA are among the hormones produced by the adrenal glands.  It is possible that these hormones can reduce the immune system dysfunction seen in Hashimoto's thyroiditis...”

Kidney Cancer

...the condition
“...Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is a disease that causes multiple tumors of the brain, spine, eyes, adrenal glands, pancreas, inner ear, testicles, and kidneys...”
...recommendation Surgery
“...The most common form of surgery for RCC, radical nephrectomy involves removal of the entire kidney, often along with the attached adrenal gland, surrounding fatty tissues and nearby lymph nodes (regional lymphadenectomy), depending upon how far the cancer has spread...”

Korean Ginseng a treatment
“...Korean or Chinese Ginseng may prove especially effective in restoration of normal adrenal function and prevention of adrenal atrophy associated with corticosteroid administration...”

LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone a treatment
“...By blocking opioid receptors, naltrexone also blocks the reception of the opioid hormones (endorphins) that the brain and adrenal glands produce.  Many body tissues have receptors for the endorphins, including virtually every cell of the body's immune system...”

Licorice Root a treatment
“...Glycyrrhizin has a similar structure to adrenal steroids and has been used successfully in treating adrenal insufficiency, fatigue, various skin problems, as well as female hormonal regulation...”

Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency

...the condition
“The adrenal glands, located above each kidney, can become 'exhausted' as a result of the constant demands placed upon them...”
...our question about How much coffee you drink
“Caffeine raises adrenaline levels and heavy coffee consumption can lead to a state of adrenal gland exhaustion, where the adrenal glands are no longer able to adequately respond to stress by releasing enough adrenaline.”
...relationship to Panic Attacks
“When adrenal function is low, caffeine consumption may contribute to panic attacks...”
...relationship to HIV/AIDS
“...However, HIV can cause reactive changes in pituitary and adrenal function, as can many HIV medications.”
...recommendation TMG (Trimethylglycine)
“The adrenal gland uses nutrients such as TMG (betaine), tyrosine, vitamins B5, B6 and C to maintain function and produce its hormones.”
...recommendation Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
“Taking 1-3gm of mineral ascorbates up to 3 times daily is supportive of adrenal gland function.”
...recommendation Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
“Key nutrients to aid adrenal function include vitamin C, B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6, zinc, and magnesium...”
...recommendation Vitamin A
“The adrenals need lots of vitamin A, C, and B-complex.”
...recommendation Increased Salt Consumption
“Sea salt should be included in the diet, unless contraindicated for other reasons, as it benefits adrenal gland function.  When seasoning foods, use as much salt as tastes good to you.”
...recommendation Licorice Root
“...A Naturopathic Doctor should be able to guide you in using licorice root alone or in combination with other adrenal agents.”
...recommendation Korean Ginseng
“Both Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) are known to exert beneficial effects on adrenal function and enhance resistance to stress...”
...recommendation Caffeine/Coffee Avoidance
“Caffeine raises adrenaline levels and heavy coffee consumption can lead to a state of adrenal gland exhaustion, where the adrenal glands are no longer able to adequately respond to stress by releasing enough adrenaline.”
...recommendation Test Adrenal Function
Adrenal function can be evaluated in several ways by blood, saliva, and/or urine testing...”
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More topics Related to Adrenal

Low DHEA Level

...the condition
“Produced by the adrenal glands, DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) is mildly androgenic...”

Low Pregnenolone Level

...the condition
“Pregnenolone is a hormone with its own actions, as well as being a mother hormone for sex and adrenal hormones...”

Low Total Cholesterol

...recommendation Test for Hormones
“...Since cholesterol is the precursor to the adrenal and sex steroids, low levels may mean an insufficient supply of raw material for hormone production...”

Lupus, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“...One reason for this is poor adrenal function.  Adrenal steroids modulate (slow down) the immune system: when there is not enough of these steroids the immune system goes berserk.”

Male Hair Loss

...relationship to Hypothalamus / Pituitary / Pineal Dysfunction
“Any condition that upsets the adrenal or pituitary gland may result in hair loss.”


...related topic
“...The average adult has about 9mg of molybdenum concentrated mostly in the liver, kidney, adrenal glands, bones and skin...”

Multiple Sclerosis

...relationship to Progesterone Low or Estrogen Dominance
“...Progesterone therapy may therefore be useful for MS especially as a medical report noted the association between enlarged adrenal glands and MS.  Progesterone, being a steroid, often helps the adrenals deal with inflammation...”
...recommendation ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
“One hormone which has been shown to shorten the duration and intensity of acute exacerbations is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a pituitary gland substance that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce additional cortisone, which acts to reduce the inflammation in the brain or spinal cord...”

Night Eating Syndrome

...the condition
“...Therapy to increase the natural nocturnal rise in melatonin, reduce the body's adrenal stress response and raise leptin levels or improve leptin sensitivity are options that may help these patients overcome the disorder...”

Painful Menstruation (Dysmenorrhea)

...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“Dysmenorrhea caused by ovarian dysfunction may disappear when low doses of cortisol are used to improve adrenal influence on ovarian function...”

Pantothenic Acid

...related topic
“A B-complex vitamin necessary for the normal functioning of the adrenal gland, which directly affects growth...”


...related topic
“Encapsulated tumor of the adrenal gland secreting epinephrine and norepinephrine.”

Phosphytidalserine a treatment
“...Stress causes the pituitary gland to secrete an adrenal cortisol stimulator, ACTH...”


...related topic
“...The front lobe is stimulated by the hypothalamus, and produces any one of six different hormones that in turn stimulate the thyroid, adrenal and reproductive glands, and also breast milk production.”

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

...the condition
“...Treatment modalities for hirsutism include ovarian and adrenal suppression, anti-androgen therapy and local hair removal measures...”

Poor Memory

...recommendation Licorice Root
“Licorice root supports the adrenal glands and indirectly influences the brain.”

Pregnenolone a treatment
“...Pregnenolone is the precursor to all of the steroid hormones (those made by the ovaries, testicles, and adrenal glands), including progesterone, estrogen, testosterone, the cortisones, and DHEA...”

Premature/Signs of Aging

...recommendation Stress Management
“Both Eastern and Western medicine recognize that stress can affect the adrenal glands and accelerate the aging process.”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS A (Anxiety)

...the condition
“...The causes of estrogen-progesterone imbalance include inadequate neurotransmitter synthesis, low serotonin, adrenal fatigue and cortisol dysregulation...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS D (Depression)

...the condition
“...The decreased ovarian estrogen output during the luteal phase has been attributed to a stress-induced increase in adrenal androgens and/or progesterone...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS H (Headache)

...the condition
“...Dopamine suppresses aldosterone formation in the adrenal glands and, in the kidneys, is natriuretic and diuretic...”

Problems Caused By Being Overweight

...recommendation DHEA
“...The choice of whether to use DHEA or 7-Keto DHEA will be influenced by your sex and adrenal hormone status...”

Progesterone Low or Estrogen Dominance

...the condition
“...Anti-aging Benefits of Natural Progesterone ... Progesterone is a primary precursor in the biosynthesis of the adrenal corticosteroids...”
...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“The inner most layer of an adrenal gland is the zona reticularis which produces small amounts of sex hormones...”

Reflexology a treatment
“...The sudden adrenal surge that enables a person to lift a car is an example of this reaction...”

Rhodiola rosea (Roseroot) a treatment
“...Additional effects of rhodiola are as follows ... Adaptogenic activity by lowering the stress induced catecholamines from the adrenal gland...”


...the condition
“...Sepsis can rapidly lead to septic shock and death, being associated with organisms such as meningococci that can lead to shock, adrenal collapse and disseminated intravascular coagulation.”

Siberian Ginseng a treatment
“...Siberian Ginseng supports the working of the adrenal glands and helps with nervous tension...”

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

...the condition
“...Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which runs in families and increases the risk of developing breast cancer, brain tumors, leukemias, and cancer of the adrenal glands.  People with Li-Fraumeni syndrome also have an increased risk of developing soft tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas...”

St John's Wort a treatment
“...St. John's Wort is used for depression or anxiety that leads to fatigue and adrenal gland exhaustion...”


...relationship to Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
“When a person is stressed, their adrenal glands produce stress hormones...”

Test Adrenal Function a treatment
“The adrenal glands can be evaluated in several different ways and more than one of these may be required to fully understand the nature of the problem...”

Test Estrogen Level a treatment
“...Small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands.  In men, small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal glands and testicles...”

Test Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) a treatment
“...For women: Small amounts of testosterone are produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands.  Even slight increases in testosterone production, caused for example by polycystic ovarian syndrome, can cause hormone imbalance and lead to conditions such as amenorrhea, infertility...”

Testosterone a treatment
“...Testosterone comes primarily from the testes of males and the ovaries of females, with small amounts being secreted by the adrenal glands.  Replacement therapy can take the form of injectables (such as testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthate in oil), transdermal patches, creams and gels, subcutaneous pellets and...”

The Effects Of Overtraining

...relationship to Osteoporosis - Osteopenia
“Cortisol – a hormone produced by the adrenal gland during periods of intense physical exercise – interferes with bone-building and reduces bone density by breaking down bone faster than it is made.”
...relationship to Osteoarthritis
“Cortisol – a hormone produced by the adrenal gland during periods of intense physical exercise – interferes with bone-building and reduces bone density by breaking down bone faster than it is made.”
...relationship to Weakened Immune System
“Cortisol, which is a hormone emitted by the adrenal gland during periods of physical stress, has an immunosuppressive effect: high performance athletes have chronically lowered immune systems...”

Thymic Factors a treatment
“...Modern medicine replaces the thyroid gland with thyroid hormone, the adrenal gland with cortisone, the pancreas gland with insulin, and the ovaries with estrogen and progesterone...”

Turmeric a treatment
“...Curcumin interacts with the adrenal glands in a way that allows the body to spare cortisol, one of the body's own inflammation control mechanisms...”

Vitamin A Requirement

...the condition
“...Vitamin A is essential for innumerable biological functions – night and color vision, wound healing, bone and tooth formation, healthy skin, normal growth, reproductive and adrenal function, cartilage development, mucous membranes/secretions and lactation...”

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) a treatment
“...It enhances adrenal/heart functions, prevents deterioration of blood vessels, and helps to prevent arterial sclerosis (hardening of the arteries)...”

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) a treatment
“...It is stored in high amounts in the adrenal glands but about 70% of absorbed pantothenic acid is excreted in the urine...”

Vitamin B-Complex Requirement

...the condition
“...B5 (pantothenic acid) – needed for release of energy from food; helps in the functioning of the adrenal gland and in the formation of antibodies...”

Vitamin Pantothenic Acid Requirement

...the condition
“Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is required for release of energy from food; it helps in the functioning of the adrenal gland and in the formation of antibodies...”


...the condition
“...Even though most people with vitiligo are in good general health, they are at greater risk of ... Addison's disease (decreased adrenal gland function)...”

Yeast / Candida Infection

...the condition
“...Adrenal and thyroid gland malfunction...”
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