Definition of Serotonin:

A phenolic amine neurotransmitter (C10H12N2O) that is a powerful vasoconstrictor and is found especially in the brain, blood serum and gastric membranes of mammals.  Considered essential for relaxation, sleep, and concentration.

Topics Related to Serotonin

5-HIAA Urine test a treatment
“5-HIAA (5-hydroxy indole acetic acid) is the main breakdown product of serotonin.  The quantitative measurement in the urine that an individual excretes in a 24-hour period indicates how much serotonin is being made in the body during that time...”


...related topic
“...An intermediate metabolite between tryptophan and serotonin.”
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More topics Related to Serotonin

Alzheimer's Disease

...recommendation Acupuncture
“...Increased serotonin levels probably explain why acupuncture is so effective in controlling pain and managing stress...”

Antidepressants a treatment
“...The most widely prescribed antidepressants come from a class of medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...”


...relationship to Low Serotonin Level
Serotonin levels are often low among people with anxiety disorders.”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“Tryptophan (or 5-HTP), the precursor of the sleep-inducing neurotransmitter serotonin, also has relaxing and calming effects...”
...recommendation Inositol
“Inositol works by regulating the action of serotonin, a calming neurotransmitter, within the nerve cells.”

Aspartame/Neotame Side-Effects

...our question about Unintentional recent weight gain
“...Normally, when a significant quantity of carbohydrate are consumed, serotonin levels rise in the brain...”

Asperger Syndrome

...the condition
“...In certain cases medical treatments for ADHD can be tried for significant hyperactivity or distraction and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications can be used to aid with anxiety...”


...relationship to Vitamin B6 Requirement
“...Tryptophan is converted to serotonin, a known bronchoconstricting agent in asthmatics...”

Banana a treatment
“...Bananas contain tryptophan, a protein that the body converts into serotonin which is known to improve relaxation, mood and overall happiness...”

Bulimic Tendency

...the condition
“...The higher incidence of anger attacks in patients compared to controls may suggest lower serotonin levels.  In one study, all the bulimic patients were found to have high serum carotene levels, independent of what they ate...”

Carbohydrate Craving

...the condition
“...They also produce higher levels of the brain chemical serotonin.  In sensitive people, particularly those who may have low serotonin levels to begin with, a carbohydrate binge is the equivalent of self-medication – getting a sugar "high...”

Carcinoid Cancer

...the condition
“...Almost all of these tumors make serotonin and bradykinin...”
...our question about Heart murmur
“The heart murmur seen in carcinoid syndrome is thought to occur secondary to high serotonin levels affecting the tricuspid valve and causing significant valvular insufficiency.”

Chromogranin A (CgA) Test a treatment
“...favorably for its use in detecting carcinoid tumors and monitoring their progression; alternative diagnostic tests for carcinoid tumors include tests of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, serum serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and serum neuron-specific enolase...”

Chronic Fatigue / Fibromyalgia Syndrome

...the condition
“...In one study, 75% of urine specimens obtained from CFS patients contained elevated levels of 5-HIAA, (5-hyroxyindole acetic acid), a breakdown product of serotonin.  This recent finding also showed that 70% of those taking NADH returned to normal levels of 5-HIAA, while 70% of placebo patients continued to show elevated or increasing levels of 5-HIAA...”

Cluster Headaches

...the condition
“...The hypothalamus is also involved in the regulation of many important hormones, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and cortisol (stress hormones), melatonin (related to sleep), and beta endorphins (involved with pain)...”


...our question about Your muscle/body fat composition
“...It may be that constantly 'feeling puny' has a demoralizing effect, or that their bodies produce insufficient amounts of serotonin (the 'feel-good' chemical), or the statistically proven fact that skinny men are more successful when they attempt suicide...”
...relationship to Effects of a Low Carbohydrate Diet
“The director of MIT's distinguished Clinical Research Center measured the serotonin levels in the brains of 100 volunteers eating different diets...”
...relationship to Estrogens Low
“Low estrogen levels trigger the brain to release MAO, an enzyme in the brain which breaks down and destroys the neurotransmitter, serotonin.  Estrogen increases the destruction of this enzyme...”
...relationship to Vitamin B6 Requirement
“B6 is a cofactor for the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin and for the synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine...”
...relationship to Low Serotonin Level
Serotonin levels can dictate if you feel depressed or not...”
...relationship to Manganese Requirement
“...A deficiency may contribute to depression stemming from low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine.”
...recommendation Vitamin B-Complex
“...These nutrients play an indirect but critical role in the formation of serotonin and other neurotransmitters, and deficiencies – which are linked to high levels of homocysteine – are linked with mood disorders...”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“Tryptophan is a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that is frequently imbalanced in cases of depression...”
...recommendation High/Increased Carbohydrate Diet
“A carbohydrate-rich diet helps the body produce serotonin – the "happy" hormone...”
...recommendation DHEA
“...DHEA is the only hormone besides cortisol and serotonin that has consistently been linked to depression...”
...recommendation Amino Acid Profile
“...Tryptophan is the body's source material for producing the hormones serotonin and melatonin, which also influence sleep patterns and mood...”
...recommendation Aspartame (Nutrasweet) Avoidance
“...There are numerous reported cases of low brain serotonin levels, depression and other emotional disorders that have been linked to aspartame and often are relieved by stopping the intake of aspartame...”

Elevated Homocysteine Levels

...relationship to Depression
“...The methyl group provided by normal homocysteine metabolism is necessary for the production of depression-relieving neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine...”

Excessive Fatigue

...relationship to Depression
“...Serotonin, for example, helps regulate the internal body clock...”

Hormone Imbalance

...the condition
“...Other risk factors include ... Depression – Levels of serotonin will be lowered...”

Inositol a treatment
“...Proper action of several brain neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and serotonin, require inositol...”


...recommendation Melatonin
“...The pineal gland – a tiny gland at the base of the brain – makes serotonin and then turns it into melatonin when light decreases...”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“Due to the fact that the synthesis of serotonin and melatonin within the brain is dependent on the availability of the amino acid tryptophan, supplementing the diet with tryptophan before going to bed may produce good results in relieving...”

Intoxication Susceptibility

...the condition
“...Alcohol also acts on the serotonin system, which (like Prozac) increases self-confidence and reduces depression...”

Low Serotonin Level

...the condition
“When serotonin levels are low, many psychological problems can develop including serious depression...”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“Tryptophan is the dietary amino acid precursor for production of serotonin in the body...”

Low Total Cholesterol

...the condition
“...The author of the review said that there may be a possible link between low cholesterol and a reduction in the brain chemical serotonin.  Individuals with low serotonin levels are known to be more likely to commit suicide, especially by violent means, as well as homicide.”

Migraine/Tension Headaches

...relationship to Dehydration
“...Dehydration leads to ... Decreased serotonin production: Changes in serotonin levels can trigger migraines...”
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More topics Related to Serotonin

Monoamine Oxidase

...related topic
“...Type A (MAO-A) deactivates epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin; MAO-B metabolizes dopamine and phenylethylamine...”

Night Eating Syndrome

...the condition
“...These foods are believed to increase the amount of tryptophan available for conversion to serotonin, the calming neurotransmitter in the brain that promotes an overall sense of well-being and, in turn, converts to melatonin...”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“Taking Tryptophan or 5-HTP orally causes an increase of serotonin in the brain.”

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

...the condition
“...OCD may also involve abnormal functioning (low levels) of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain...”
...relationship to Low Serotonin Level
“Although the exact cause is not known, experts believe that OCD may be caused by low levels of a chemical in the brain called serotonin.”
...recommendation Conventional Drug Use
“The most effective medications for OCD are the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Prozac, Paxil, Luvox, and Zoloft as well as the tricyclic Anafranil...”
...recommendation Inositol
“...The mechanism may be that the desensitization of serotonin receptors is reversed by addition of dietary inositol...”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“OCD may be related to a central disturbance in serotonin metabolism, a hypothesis which appears to explain the efficacy of serotonin reuptake-blocking drugs...”

Oxitriptan a treatment
“...Oxitriptan is converted into the brain hormone serotonin in the body...”


...related topic
“...PAF activates platelets to secrete serotonin and other mediators to cause smooth-muscle contraction and vascular permeability, involved in asthma; a PAF antagonist counters these effects.”

Panic Attacks

...recommendation Inositol
“...Inositol works by regulating the action of serotonin, a calming neurotransmitter, within the nerve cells...”

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

...the condition
“...Both cimetidine and cyproheptadine (a serotonin and histamine antagonist) have weak anti-androgenic effects.”

Premenstrual Syndrome

...the condition
“...It is these hormonal fluctuations that are thought to be what causes Premenstrual Syndrome; specifically changes in serotonin, progesterone and estrogen...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS A (Anxiety)

...the condition
“...The causes of estrogen-progesterone imbalance include inadequate neurotransmitter synthesis, low serotonin, adrenal fatigue and cortisol dysregulation...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS C (Craving)

...the condition
“...PMS-C is associated with low serotonin levels, which result in a craving for sweets because carbohydrates can temporarily increase serotonin levels...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS D (Depression)

...the condition
“...Its key symptom is depression due to an underactive thyroid and low serotonin levels.  The depression in PMS-D patients is usually associated with low levels of biogenic amines in the synaptic vesicles of the Central Nervous System, most likely due to increased MAO-A...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS H (Headache)

...the condition
“...may arise due to any of the following factors ... Stress – aldosterone is secreted by the adrenal cortex under the control of ACTH, which is secreted by the pituitary in response to stress, high serotonin levels and angiotensin II...”

Problems Caused By Being Overweight

...relationship to Stress
“...Carbohydrates are often the craved foods because they increase levels of serotonin in the brain, which has a calming effect and helps induce sleep...”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“...It is thought to work by raising levels of serotonin, which in turn may influence eating behavior...”

Protein Deficiency

...the condition
“...The symptoms of protein deficiency can therefore take many different forms, including ... "Brain fog" (Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin are needed for mental focus, and are produced from amino acids – the building blocks of protein...”

Rapid Intestinal Transit

...the condition
“...Aside from those mentioned below, there are many other things that decrease the amount of time that stool stays in the intestines, including ... serotonin...”

Restless Leg Syndrome

...relationship to Low Serotonin Level
“Tryptophan, a serotonin precursor, has been shown to help a small percentage of RLS sufferers...”
...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“Tryptophan, a serotonin precursor, has been shown to help a small percentage of RLS sufferers...”

Rhodiola rosea (Roseroot) a treatment
“...Rhodiola rosea's effects are attributed to its ability to optimize serotonin and dopamine levels and to its influence on opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins...”

S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) a treatment
“...Serotonin, adrenalin, melatonin and dopamine are but a few of these substances that are produced because of SAMe and its effect on methylation...”

Schisandra Berry a treatment
“...Some of its effects – similar to rhodiola – may be due to these adaptogenic properties, protecting against stressed-induced metabolic alterations in blood glucose and/or serotonin.  These aberrations have been shown to result in changes of behavior and mood...”


...the condition
“...Serotonin imbalance Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that transmits messages from one nerve to another...”


...related topic
Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor...”

St John's Wort a treatment
“...It has been theorized that depression results from decreased serotonin levels in the brain...”

Test Serotonin Levels a treatment
“Elevated blood serotonin may be inherited...”

The Effects Of Overtraining

...relationship to Depression
“...of Munich reported that young athletes who train excessively and don't leave enough time to recover from stress and injury have a 20% higher risk of suffering from depression due to changes in serotonin and tryptophan levels.”

Tourette's Syndrome

...recommendation Tryptophan / 5HTP
“The low blood serotonin and tryptophan levels seen in Tourette's syndrome (TS) are consistent with the wide range of behavioral disorders expected in such cases...”


...the condition
“...Also, treatment with medications that have similar effects on serotonin, a brain neurotransmitter, may benefit both trichotillomania and OCD...”


...related topic
“...Natural relaxant and sleep aid due to its precursor role in serotonin (a neurotransmitter) synthesis...”

Tryptophan / 5HTP a treatment
“...It is used by the brain to produce serotonin; it is a natural relaxer, helps alleviate insomnia, reduces anxiety and depression and helps treat migraine headaches...”

Tryptophan Need

...the condition
“...It is used by the human body to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter that is important for normal nerve and brain function...”
...our question about Blacking out from alcohol
“Tryptophan (or 5-HTP), the precursor of the sleep-inducing neurotransmitter serotonin, also has relaxing and calming effects...”
...recommendation Chromium
“Chromium picolinate helps to promote conversion of tryptophan to serotonin.  It accomplishes this by facilitating absorption into muscle tissue of the amino acids that compete with tryptophan for access to the brain.”

Vinpocetine a treatment
“...Vinpocetine has been used orally for many years in Europe to enhance memory and mental function by ... Raising brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin...”

Weight Loss a treatment
“...Most of these drugs decrease appetite by affecting levels of the brain neurotransmitters catecholamine, serotonin and/or noradrenaline – brain chemicals that affect mood and appetite...”
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