Definition of Biopsy:

Removal of a sample of tissue from a living being for diagnosis.  A pathologist later uses a microscope to look for certain features, such as cancer cells, in the sample.  A fine-needle aspiration biopsy involves inserting a thin needle to remove a small amount of tissue, sometimes using CT or ultrasound to guide the needle.  A core biopsy involves obtaining a sample of tissue with a thick needle or by inserting a thin, lighted tube (laparoscope) into a small incision in the abdomen.  Another biopsy method is to remove tissue during an operation.

Topics Related to Biopsy


...the condition
“...20% of women have adenomyosis, the exact rate of incidence of adenomyosis is unknown because a diagnosis can be made only after a pathologist examines uterine wall samples obtained during surgery or biopsy.  More than 80% of women with adenomyosis have other uterine disorders as well...”

Alport Syndrome

...the condition
“...The diagnosis of Alport Syndrome is done by a careful family history and a kidney biopsy (examination of a small piece of tissue taken from the kidney)...”
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More topics Related to Biopsy


...the condition
“...A bone marrow biopsy may also be required...”

Barrett's Esophagus

...the condition
“...The premalignant lining of Barrett's esophagus can be seen at endoscopy and diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy.  It is therefore recommended that patients who have chronic heartburn or indigestion undergo endoscopy with biopsy to determine whether or not they have developed Barrett's esophagus...”
...relationship to Esophageal Cancer
“...If Barrett's esophagus is diagnosed, regular follow-up endoscopic biopsy evaluations are recommended for the early detection of changes that could lead to cancer...”

Bile Duct Cancer

...the condition
“...In addition to a complete medical history and medical examination, diagnostic procedures for bile duct cancer may include ... Biopsy...”

Breast Cancer

...the condition
“...The definitive diagnosis of breast cancer can only be made by doing a surgical biopsy.  This allows the tissue sample removed from the breast to be looked at under the microscope and examined for cancerous cells...”

Budd-Chiari Syndrome

...the condition
“...Physical examination may find that the liver is enlarged; further testing may include ... Liver biopsy, to confirm diagnosis and see if cirrhosis is present...”

Cancer, General

...recommendation Bacteria / Pathogen Testing by PCR
“An Infectious Agents in Cancer Panel (Blood or Tissue Biopsy) can test for the presence of Helicobacter pylori, Hepatitis B, Human Papilloma Virus (6, 11, 16, 18) and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).”

Canker Sores (Aphthous Ulcers)

...relationship to Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease
“...Gluten enteropathy had been excluded by biopsy in the patients who responded to the gluten-free diet...”

Carcinoid Cancer

...the condition
“...The diagnosis is not usually suspected prior to surgery but is then established by biopsy.  Carcinoid Syndrome, due to the presence of a functioning carcinoid tumor, is easily diagnosed when all of the features of the syndrome are present...”


...relationship to Magnesium Requirement
“Myocardial magnesium was measured in 8 young patients (mean age 32) with ventricular tachycardia of less than 30 seconds in duration who underwent endomyocardial biopsy.  Histologically, 4 had myocarditis and 1 had right-ventricular dysplasia...”

Cervical Dysplasia

...the condition
“...This can only be determined through biopsy.  Patients with carcinoma in situ, or a class V Pap, should undergo conization...”

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

...the condition
“...The pattern of the lymphocytes in the biopsy of the marrow can be one useful factor in determining the probable rate of progression of the disease...”

Cirrhosis of the Liver

...the condition
“...A liver biopsy will confirm the diagnosis...”

Colon Cancer

...the condition
“...Laboratory Findings ... Biopsy of colonic tumor is necessary for definitive diagnosis...”

Coronary Disease / Heart Attack

...recommendation Bacteria / Pathogen Testing by PCR
“A Cardiovascular Disease Panel (Blood or Tissue Biopsy) can test for the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6).”

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

...the condition
“...The only way to confirm a diagnosis of CJD is by brain biopsy or autopsy...”

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

...the condition
“...DH is diagnosed through a skin biopsy, which involves removing a tiny piece of skin near the rash and testing it for the IgA antibody...”


...the condition
“...He or she will also take a small sample of tissue from the affected muscle (a muscle biopsy), to check for abnormalities...”


...the condition
“...Endoscopy usually is more specific than X-ray studies because it allows direct inspection of the mucosa, detection of superficial lesions, and the ability to biopsy the mucosa...”


...the condition
“...A skin lesion biopsy may be performed, but is not always required to make the diagnosis...”

Endometrial Cancer

...the condition
“...Endometrial cancer can be diagnosed by using endometrial biopsy or by dilatation and curettage (D&C) of the uterus...”

Endometrial Hyperplasia

...the condition
“...Diagnosis can only be made by a pathologist who examines a sample of tissue removed from the thickened lining by a sampling procedure such as endometrial biopsy or dilatation and curettage (D&C)...”

Enlarged Spleen

...the condition
“...Blood tests such as a CBC; Ultrasound; Abdominal film or CT scan; Bone marrow biopsy; Other tests to check for underlying disorders...”

Esophageal Cancer

...the condition
“...Diagnosis of esophageal cancer symptoms is usually conducted through an X-ray method known as the barium swallow, and may also include endoscopy along with a biopsy, and a CT scan of the chest and abdomen...”

Fatty Liver

...the condition
“...Your doctor can confirm the diagnosis with blood tests for liver function, and by performing a liver biopsy.  With a biopsy, the doctor uses a long, hollow needle to remove a small sample of liver tissue for examination under a microscope...”

Gallbladder Cancer

...the condition
“...As with most cancers, a biopsy can be used to confirm diagnosis...”


...the condition
“...Gastritis can be diagnosed by biopsy and specimen examination under a microscope, where the presence of increased white blood cells is seen...”


...related topic
“...The same instrument can be used to take a sample from any areas that look suspicious (biopsy) which are sent for examination in a laboratory.”


...our question about Foamy urine
“IgAN is suspected when protein and blood (visible or not) are found in the urine, and is ultimately diagnosed by biopsy.  Acute IgAN is often accompanied by heavy proteinuria...”


...the condition
“...If your symptoms are suggestive your doctor will perform a blood test and possibly a biopsy (the removal of a small piece of tissue under local anaesthetic for testing)...”

Hemochromatosis (Iron overload)

...the condition
“...Hepatic iron excess was observed in 1.5% of African Americans during a recent autopsy series and in 10.4% of African Americans who underwent liver biopsy during medical care delivery...”


...the condition
“...Your provider will request a blood test, possibly a urine test and, in a few cases, a liver biopsy.  The following blood tests are available...”
...recommendation Lecithin / Choline
“...Signs of liver damage on biopsy were significantly reduced in this study...”

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

...the condition
“...The final diagnosis depends on a biopsy, in which a surgeon removes a sample of lymphatic tissue (part or all of a lymph node) so that a pathologist can examine it under a microscope to check for cancer cells...”


...the condition
“...exhibits several of the signs and symptoms and/or there is a family history of Homocysteinuria, the following tests can be conducted: Amino acid screening; Genetic testing; Skeletal X-ray; Skin biopsy; Liver biopsy; Ophthalmic exam; Newborns are now offered blood spot screening once they are 5 days old to check if they have Homocysteinuria...”

Hormone Imbalance

...the condition
“...tests for males include: Physical examination – checking the scrotum for lumps or abnormalities; Blood tests to measure testosterone, iron, prolactin and cortisol levels; Semen analysis; Testicular biopsy; Genetic studies; MRI, CT scan, or ultrasound scan – to get an image of the testicles, thyroid or pituitary gland; There are several treatments for hormonal imbalances...”

Intestinal Malabsorption Syndrome

...the condition
“...Intestinal biopsy may show mucosal villous atrophy, tumor, or inflammation...”

Iron Deficiency Anemia

...relationship to Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease
“...Patients with both positive titers underwent intestinal biopsy, and in 10 patients (5%), results were positive for celiac disease...”

Kaposi's Sarcoma

...the condition
“...KS may be suspected if the characteristic skin lesions are present, but a biopsy (tissue sample) is usually necessary to confirm the diagnosis...”
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More topics Related to Biopsy


...the condition
“...If leukemia is suspected then the next step is bone marrow aspiration or biopsy.  Following a diagnosis, blood chemistries are used to gauge the degree of liver and kidney damage and the effects of any chemotherapy treatment...”

Liver Cancer

...the condition
“...MRI; Angiogram; Biopsy; If liver cancer is diagnosed, the stage – or extent – of the disease needs to be determined in order to plan the best treatment...”

Lung Cancer

...the condition
“...Diagnosis is confirmed by a lung tissue biopsy.  Treatment will depend on which type of lung cancer is present...”

Lupus, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

...the condition
“...Some criteria, such as a biopsy diagnosis of kidney lupus, can carry more weight...”

Lyme Disease

...recommendation Bacteria / Pathogen Testing by PCR
“A Lyme/Tick Panel (Blood or Tissue Biopsy) can test for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease), Babesia microti (Babesiosis), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ehrlichiosis) and Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever).”

Male Breast Cancer

...the condition
“...Biopsy may be needed for confirmation...”
...our question about Nipple discharge color
“...Although it may very well turn out to be nothing, it should always be followed up with mammography and biopsy if any mammographic abnormality is found.”

Male-Specific Cancer Screening a treatment
“...Men with a high result may be advised to have a biopsy to find out if cancer is present...”


...the condition
“...diagnosed by the appearance of the skin (characteristic lesions that are dark-brown and fixed: urticaria pigmentosa), and confirmed by finding an abnormally high number of mast cells through a skin biopsy.  Systemic mastocytosis is diagnosed by finding an increased number of abnormal mast cells during an examination of the bone marrow...”


...the condition
“...Contrary to circulating myths, hairy moles do NOT differentiate benign from malignant; incisional biopsy into melanoma does NOT spread the tumor...”

Mouth Cancer

...the condition
“...A biopsy usually follows a visual check...”

Multiple Myeloma

...the condition
“...Bone marrow aspiration or bone marrow biopsy can detect an increase in the number of plasma cells in the bone marrow...”


...the condition
“...A complete blood count, blood smear, bone marrow biopsy, and genetic testing are the methods generally used to confirm a diagnosis and rule out other causes of the symptoms...”

Myeloproliferative Neoplasm

...the condition
“...Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy with cytogenetic studies are required in most, but not all, patients...”

Nephrotic Syndrome

...the condition
“...In order to diagnose one of the kidney disorders which cause nephrotic syndrome, a small sample of the kidney (biopsy) will need to be removed for examination...”

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

...the condition
“...A biopsy is needed to make a final diagnosis...”

Oropharyngeal Cancer

...the condition
“...A PET scan and CT scan are used together in order to provide more detail; an MRI can also be used, as well as a biopsy (using an endoscope or laryngoscope) to remove a tissue sample for testing...”


...the condition
“...Once a likely site of infection has been identified, a bone biopsy will identify the specific bacteria that are present...”

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

...the condition
“...However, a bone biopsy of the affected area can show positive signs of jawbone inflammation.”

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

...the condition
“...The doctor may also order other tests such as a sonogram, endometrial biopsy, or laparoscopy to distinguish between PID and other serious problems that may mimic PID...”

Polycythemia Vera

...the condition
“...Rarely, a bone marrow biopsy is needed...”


...the condition
“...A muscle biopsy is used to confirm the presence of muscle inflammation typical only of polymyositis...”

Prostate Cancer

...the condition
“...Biopsy.  The urologist may do a prostatic biopsy (removal of a small piece of tissue)...”


...the condition
“...A piece of skin can be cut out (biopsy) and sent for pathology testing to be quite sure of the diagnosis...”

Pulmonary Fibrosis

...the condition
“...If Pulmonary Fibrosis is suspected then various diagnostic tests can be performed ... Finally, if other tests are inconclusive, a lung tissue biopsy...”

Rectal Cancer

...the condition
“...An abnormal Pap smear shows signs of excessive cell growth and is followed by a colposcopy – the internal examination of specific lesions or areas of cell growth for biopsy.  Acetic acid (vinegar) is introduced into the anal canal to prepare the cells before an anoscope (a plastic tube), is inserted...”


...the condition
“...Types of testing for sarcoidosis include: CBC; chem-7 or chem-20; ACE levels; chest X-ray; lymph node biopsy; skin lesion biopsy; bronchoscopy; open lung biopsy; gallium scan; nerve biopsy...”

Sjogren's Syndrome

...the condition
“...One is generally considered to have definite Sjogren's if one has dry eyes, dry mouth, and a positive lip biopsy.  The doctor may decide to perform additional tests to see whether other parts of the body are affected, and whether various antibodies are found in the blood...”


...the condition
“...Structural abnormalities of the small bowel are detected by barium studies and/or biopsy.  Less common causes of steatorrhea require further diagnostic testing (e.g. duodenal aspiration for Giardia, serum gastrin for Zollinger-Ellison disease, etc...”

Stomach Cancer

...the condition
“...Laboratory Findings ... Gastroscopic biopsy and cytology – essential for diagnosis...”

Test for Gluten Sensitivity a treatment
“...The following tests can be ordered when trying to determine a patient's sensitivity to gluten ... Intestinal biopsy (for detecting suspected celiac disease, but is also prone to false negative results)...”

Test for Parasites a treatment
“...Sometimes a biopsy of the small intestines is taken, a small amount of tissue that is examined for parasitic infestation...”

Test Histamine Levels a treatment
“...Possibilities are: skin tests, RAST, or challenge tests; biopsy and/or CT scan.”


...the condition
“...Doctors can usually tell by taking a tissue sample (biopsy) and looking at it under a microscope...”

Thyroid Cancer

...the condition
“...An ultrasound may also be used to help find the thyroid lump during a needle biopsy.  A needle biopsy, used to obtain a small amount of thyroid tissue, which can be looked at under a microscope...”


...the condition
“...Diagnosis involves looking for toxoplasmosis antibodies in the blood, a CT scan of the brain, an MRI of the head, a slit-lamp examination of the eyes, and/or brain biopsy.  Antimalarial drugs and antibiotics are the usual treatment...”


...the condition
“...Common tests ... Muscle biopsy (trichinella cysts are seen in the muscle)...”

Ulcerative Colitis

...the condition
“...Laboratory findings ... Definitive diagnosis requires a colonic mucosal biopsy...”

Vaginal Dryness

...recommendation Korean Ginseng
“...When examined microscopically, the biopsy specimens showed typical atrophy, with thinned epithelial layer and little to no mucous production...”

Yeast / Candida Infection

...recommendation Bacteria / Pathogen Testing by PCR
“A Panfungal Panel (Blood or Tissue Biopsy) can test for the presence of several hundred human pathogenic fungal species...”
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