Hypothyroidism: Overview

Alternative Names: Hypothyroidism is often referred to as an "underactive thyroid gland".

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland, which is located in the neck, does not make sufficient thyroid hormone to meet the body's requirements.  Caused in almost all cases by autoimmune disease, the result is that the immune system goes awry and begins gradually to destroy the thyroid gland.  This process is not usually associated with thyroid gland discomfort but may cause the gland to enlarge or shrink in size.
There is a variation of hypothyroidism called Wilson's Syndrome, named after E.  Denis Wilson, MD.  Wilson's Syndrome is also known as Multiple Enzyme Dysfunction or MED.  All of the details of this condition can be found in his book Wilson's Syndrome, The Miracle of Feeling Well. This book is somewhat controversial and although many doctors are using variations of his therapeutic approach, it contains much useful information and many testimonials of people helped by using T3 therapy.  Sufficient additional information may be found on the Internet and by conferring with a knowledgeable doctor.

Dr. Wilson reports that when a body is under stress, such as illness, fasting, cortisol from stress, T4 (thyroxin – a thyroid hormone) is converted to Reverse T3 instead of T3 (triiodothyronine – the primary hormone that regulates the metabolic rate).  As the T3 hormone levels in the blood drop to low levels, the patient's body temperature can subsequently drop below normal.  When the body temperature decreases so does the function of important enzymes, as their activity is determined by temperature.

Wilson's Syndrome is a state of chronic low body temperature.  It may be genetic, or triggered by stress or inactivity, as well as diet, selenium or zinc deficiency, heavy metals or starvation.  It appears to be part of the body's method of conserving fuel: Wilson's Syndrome occurs when someone drops into this "conservation" mode and is not able to later recover back to the normal "productive" mode of functioning.  An interesting side note is that Dr. Fahrenheit considered normal body temperature to be 100°F.  Some say the present average temperature is 98.2°, and may be as much as 1½° lower than it was 150 years ago.

Incidence; Causes and Development; Contributing Risk Factors

Hypothyroidism is relatively common.  It affects between 1 in 100 to 3 in 100 women of child-bearing age.  It is more common in women than in men, and it becomes more common with age.  Hypothyroidism occurs in up to 5 to 10% of older women; up to 20% of women over 60 have evidence of hypothyroidism.

A common cause of hypothyroidism is the treatment of hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland), which often causes the thyroid gland to fail after a number of years.

With regards to Wilson's Syndrome, difficulty arises when low metabolism conditions continue for too long: various repair functions are deferred too long, and the body begins to show signs and symptoms.  For every degree of body temperature lost, biochemists say the loss in efficiency of enzymatic processes can be up to 20%.  Chronic low body temperature is related to many syndromes and symptoms, including: allergies, apathy, chronic fatigue, "brain fog", "personal failure", depression, dizziness, hypoglycemia, lethargy, passive/aggressive syndromes, skin and joint conditions, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunction, past sexual abuse, yeast problems, porphyria, and many other poorly-defined chronic low health states.  Obviously, not all chronic problems are related to chronic low body temperature but it would be prudent to measure one's body temperature from time to time to see if this is a possibility.  It is interesting to note that a common time of death is in the very early morning, when the body temperature is at its lowest.

Hypothyroidism tends to "run in families".  If you have a history of either hypothyroidism, or paradoxically, hyperthyroidism in your family, it increases the chance that you may someday develop the condition.  However, except for a few rare disorders, hypothyroidism is not transmitted in a typical dominant or recessive manner.  If you have a strong family history of underactive or overactive thyroid disease, you should mention this to your physician.

Signs and Symptoms

Hypothyroidism slows metabolism and affects essentially every system in the body.  Symptoms include generalized fatigue, weight gain, thinning (brittle) hair, dry scaly skin, thin nails that break easily, constipation, alterations in menses, aching muscles, and slow heart rate.  You may notice changes in behavior, such as decreased ability to concentrate, reading and calculating are more difficult, and you may experience decreased interest in personal relationships or work.  Hypothyroidism can cause or worsen depression.

Other symptoms include loss of appetite, painful pre-menstrual periods, muscle weakness, a yellow-orange coloration in the skin (particularly on the palms), yellow bumps on the eyelids, hair loss (including eyebrows), recurrent infections, depression, slow speech, lowering of the voice, premature aging and drooping swollen eyes.

Diagnosis and Tests

Hypothyroidism is more common than is typically diagnosed.  It is possible to have some laboratory values be returned in the normal range when you have low thyroid symptoms.  Oral temperatures during the day of less than 98.0°F (36.7°C) are very suspicious.

Diagnosis involves a simple blood test which measures your thyroid hormone (thyroxine or T4) and TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels.  An elevation of TSH is a very sensitive index of reduced thyroid function.  Somewhat like the thermostat in your home, when thyroid hormone levels fall, TSH (the furnace) is switched on to stimulate the thyroid gland.  When thyroid hormone levels are low for a long time, TSH levels remain high.  Thus, hypothyroidism is characterized by a TSH level that is above the normal range and a thyroxine level that is below or at the low end of the normal range (everyone's set point is a little different).  Your physician can assist in the interpretation of these results, or you may wish to see a physician (an Endocrinologist) who specializes in hormonal disorders.

Treatment and Prevention

A medication called L-Thyroxine (L-T4) is used to replace the missing thyroid hormone.  Some preparations also include a second form of thyroid hormone, tri-iodothyronine (L-T3).  These hormones are chemically identical to those made by your own thyroid gland.  Consequently, when the correct doses are prescribed and restore your metabolism to normal, the treatment is not accompanied by side-effects.  The medication is in the form of a tablet, taken once a day.  Taking too much thyroid hormone will, of course, speed up metabolism and can cause rapid or irregular heart rate and loss of calcium from the bone.  However, excess thyroid hormone levels are unlikely to occur when the treatment is carefully prescribed and monitored.

When hypothyroidism is diagnosed, most doctors will prescribe thyroid medication and many use Synthroid (T4).  However, a recent blinded study demonstrated that T4 and T3 in combination produced greater benefits than T4 alone, especially in the area of mental functioning.

Hypopituitarism (low functioning pituitary) and hypothyroidism (low functioning thyroid) can both result in deficient production of T4, which is the raw material the body uses to produce the active thyroid hormone T3.  Your doctor should be able to help determine which medications are best for you.

The treatment of choice preferred by conventional doctors is T4 (Synthroid) because of its long half-life in the body (which helps provide steady T3 levels), once-a-day administration, and effectiveness in the treatment of such cases.  Patients with hypopituitarism and hypothyroidism may, however, suffer with Wilson's Syndrome at the same time.  In such cases, T4 therapy may not be adequate because impaired conversion of the T4 to the active compound T3 may prevent sufficient normalization of body temperature patterns and, in some cases, can even feed the vicious cycle of Wilson's Syndrome.  The simultaneous use of T4 with T3 may be the best approach for hypothyroidism, especially if Wilson"s Syndrome is suspected.  Many doctors prefer using the standard T4/T3 combination found in desiccated thyroid products such as Armour thyroid and other generic brands.  Additional adjustments in the T4/T3 ratio can be made to meet the needs of individual patients.

Aside from taking a daily tablet, containing L-thyroxine, you should not have to change your lifestyle.

Is there a way to prevent hypothyroidism? Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism but this is very unlikely in North America where the iodine supply is abundant.  There are no other preventative measures you can take to avoid hypothyroidism.

Prognosis; Complications

The underlying cause of hypothyroidism (autoimmune thyroiditis) is not reversible.  However, the consequences of hypothyroidism can be treated very effectively by taking thyroid hormone replacement medication.  The dose of thyroid hormone can be carefully regulated so that your body's metabolism is restored to normal.  You should have your blood tested at least once a year, or more often if necessary, to be certain that the thyroid hormone dose you are taking is satisfactory.

Recognition and proper daily treatment of low thyroid function using thyroid hormone replacement therapy will result in resolution of deficiency symptoms usually beginning within the first month of therapy and reaching a maximum at 6-12 months of treatment.  Nevertheless, it is probable that the patient will require thyroxine replacement for the rest of his or her life.

Problems with the thyroid can be the cause of many recurring illnesses and fatigue.

Patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease) and treated with radioactive iodine are more likely to develop hypothyroidism.  Approximately 50% of patients treated with radioiodine, and many treated with antithyroid drugs, eventually develop hypothyroidism and should be tested at about yearly intervals.

Hypothyroidism can cause carpal tunnel syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon; it can also lead to significant increases in cholesterol levels and homocysteine levels and is implicated in about 10% of cases of high cholesterol levels.  Correcting hypothyroidism can lead to a 30% drop in cholesterol and homocysteine levels.


Information On This Page

Signs, symptoms & indicators of Hypothyroidism:

Lab Values - Cells


Lab Values - Common

Lab Values - Hormones



Symptoms - Bowel Movements


Symptoms - Environment

Symptoms - Food - General

Symptoms - General


Symptoms - Glandular

Major swelling at front of neck is a sign or symptom of HypothyroidismPossible/minor/major swelling at front of neck
A goiter is a common symptom of hypothyroidism / too little iodine in the diet.

Symptoms - Hair

Symptoms - Head - Eyes/Ocular

Bags under eyes is often a sign or symptom of HypothyroidismBags under eyes
People suffering from a thyroid problem (usually underactive, sometimes overactive) may have very baggy eyes.

Symptoms - Head - Mouth/Oral

Incoherent speech may be a sign or symptom of HypothyroidismIncoherent speech
Slurred speech is a possible sign of hypothyroidism.

Symptoms - Head - Nose

Symptoms - Metabolic


Symptoms - Mind - Emotional

Symptoms - Mind - General

Short-term memory failure may be a sign or symptom of HypothyroidismShort-term memory failure
Forgetfulness is a symptom of hypothyroidism.

Symptoms - Muscular

Slow reaction time may be a sign or symptom of HypothyroidismSlow reaction time
Slowed reflexes are a sign of hypothyroidism.

Symptoms - Nails

Brittle fingernails may be a sign or symptom of HypothyroidismBrittle fingernails
Thyroid diseases may produce brittle nails or splitting of the nail bed from the nail plate.

Symptoms - Nervous

Symptoms - Reproductive - Female Cycle

Symptoms - Reproductive - General

Symptoms - Skeletal

Symptoms - Skin - General

Having non-scalp scaly/flaky skin may be a sign or symptom of HypothyroidismHaving non-scalp scaly/flaky skin
Hypothyroidism can manifest as dry and/or scaly/flaky skin.

Conditions that suggest Hypothyroidism:


Coronary Disease / Heart Attack may suggest HypothyroidismCoronary Disease / Heart Attack
The thyroid affects every organ in the body, including the heart.  Almost any type of heart disease can be worsened by thyroid disorder, so thyroid function should always be checked if cardiac symptoms are worsening.  Hypothyroidism weakens the heart muscle in both its contraction and relaxation phases, resulting in less blood being pumped.  And, because the heart muscle does not relax normally in between beats, a potentially serious condition called diastolic dysfunction may result.
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) may suggest HypothyroidismHypertension (High Blood Pressure)
Hypothyroidism reduces the amount of nitric oxide in the lining of the blood vessels, causing them to stiffen, which in turn raises diastolic blood pressure.
Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia may suggest HypothyroidismMegaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
Pernicious anemia is associated with other autoimmune conditions such as Hashimoto's disease, a form of hypothyroidism.
Anemia often contraindicates HypothyroidismAnemia
If anemia is identified as a problem then the likelihood of Hypothyroidism is reduced.  Therefore, it is wise to rule out anemia first, because both can contribute to similar symptomology.  Of course, it is not impossible for both to occur simultaneously, but this is less likely.


Constipation often suggests HypothyroidismConstipation
Constant constipation is a sign of hypothyroidism.
Heartburn / GERD / Acid Reflux may suggest HypothyroidismHeartburn / GERD / Acid Reflux
Gastrointestinal manifestations of hypothyroidism include GERD as a result of delayed emptying of the stomach.


Low Sex Drive often suggests HypothyroidismLow Sex Drive
Hypothyroidism can trigger loss of libido in both men and women.
Low Sex Hormone Binding Globulin may suggest HypothyroidismLow Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
Thyroid diseases such as hypothyroid affect hormonal balance.



Tendonitis may suggest HypothyroidismTendonitis
Chronic tendonitis is occasionally associated with hypothyroidism.

Lab Values

High Total Cholesterol often suggests HypothyroidismHigh Total Cholesterol
High cholesterol is one of the consequences of untreated hypothyroidism.


Depression often suggests HypothyroidismDepression
Depression is a common symptom of hypothyroidism.


Hypoglycemia may suggest HypothyroidismHypoglycemia
Patients suffering with Wilson's Syndrome, a form of hypothyroidism, occasionally experience intense and previously unfamiliar cravings for sweets.  The low body temperature patterns may affect the function of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism that could result in lower blood sugar levels which might contribute to sweet cravings.


Rheumatoid Arthritis often suggests HypothyroidismRheumatoid Arthritis
A study of rheumatoid arthritis patients found evidence of thyroid dysfunction 3 times more often than in controls.  The excess thyroid dysfunction was due to either hypothyroidism or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  [Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 1993;52 pp.454-6]
Osteoporosis - Osteopenia may suggest HypothyroidismOsteoporosis - Osteopenia
People with hypothyroidism can develop osteoporosis if they are taking too much thyroid hormone.

Organ Health

Retinitis Pigmentosa often suggests HypothyroidismRetinitis Pigmentosa
There is an increased occurrence of thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.  [ Am J Ophthalmol, 1996 Dec, 122:6, pp.903-5 Abstract]


Menorrhagia (Heavy Periods) often suggests HypothyroidismMenorrhagia (Heavy Periods)
Prolonged and/or heavy periods are a sign of hypothyroidism.
Amenorrhea often suggests HypothyroidismAmenorrhea
In many cases, an underactive or overactive thyroid gland is responsible for the absent menstrual cycles.
Metrorrhagia may suggest HypothyroidismMetrorrhagia
Prolonged and/or heavy periods are a sign of hypothyroidism.
Male Infertility (Low Sperm Count) may suggest HypothyroidismMale Infertility (Low Sperm Count)
The thyroid gland is responsible for balancing cell metabolism, so when the thyroid gland is not functioning properly, cell metabolism suffers.  This causes changes in the production of sperm.
Female Infertility may suggest HypothyroidismFemale Infertility
Hypothyroidism in women sometimes causes ovarian problems; ovulation may become less frequent or disappear altogether.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) may suggest HypothyroidismObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Hypothyroidism can present itself as obstructive sleep apnea and snoring.


Female Hair Loss often suggests HypothyroidismFemale Hair Loss
In rare cases, diffuse hair loss may be the only symptom of hypothyroidism, but in many people with hypothyroidism the hair is not affected.  Once thyroid hormone is administered, regrowth of hair occurs in approximately 2 months.
Dry skin often suggests HypothyroidismDry skin
Hypothyroidism can manifest as dry or scaly or yellowish skin.
Dandruff may suggest HypothyroidismDandruff
Hypothyroidism can manifest as dry, flaky skin.

Symptoms - Glandular

Risk factors for Hypothyroidism:



Vegan Diet Consequences often increases risk of HypothyroidismVegan Diet Consequences
Sub-clinical hypothyroidism, with raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels but mild or absent overt symptoms, has been found to be more common among vegans than the general population.  Most vegans have low iodine intakes but a significant minority consume excessive amounts of iodine from seaweed, particularly kelp.  Both low and excessively high iodine intakes in vegans have been linked to elevated TSH levels.  The optimal range for TSH appears to be 1-2 mIU/l with values below 0.5 suggesting hyperthyroidism and values above 5 suggesting hypothyroidism.

Family History

Hypothyroidism in family members often increases risk of HypothyroidismHypothyroidism in family members
Hypothyroidism tends to "run in families".  If you have a history of either hypothyroidism, or paradoxically, hyperthyroidism in your family, it increases the chance that you may someday develop the condition.  However, except for a few rare disorders, hypothyroidism is not transmitted in a typical dominant or recessive manner.  If you have a strong family history of underactive or overactive thyroid disease, you should mention this to your physician.
Hyperthyroidism in family members may increase risk of HypothyroidismHyperthyroidism in family members
A family history of hyperthyroidism leads to a higher chance of developing hypothyroidism (not just hyperthyroidism).


Progesterone Low or Estrogen Dominance may increase risk of HypothyroidismProgesterone Low or Estrogen Dominance
Progesterone increases sensitivity of estrogen receptors, and can therefore redirect estrogen activity and inhibit many of unopposed estrogen's undesirable side-effects, which includes interference with thyroid hormone activity.

Lab Values - Chemistries



Iodine Requirement often increases risk of HypothyroidismIodine Requirement
Low iodine intake can cause hypothyroidism in adults.
Copper Deficiency may increase risk of HypothyroidismCopper Deficiency
There are a limited number of studies that suggest low copper levels may reduce thyroid function.  In cases where hypothyroidism is not responding properly to medication, make sure that copper levels are normal.

Supplements and Medications

Symptoms - Food - General

Symptoms - Food - Intake

High iodine consumption may increase risk of HypothyroidismHigh iodine consumption
Amongst adults, low iodine intake or very high intakes can cause hypothyroidism.  Excessive iodine has a complex disruptive effect on the thyroid and may cause hypothyroidism in susceptible individuals.

Hypothyroidism suggests the following may be present:



Hypothyroidism could instead be:

Environment / Toxicity

Fluoride Toxicity is very occasionally misdiagnosed as HypothyroidismFluoride Toxicity
Though apparently vague and non-specific, most of the symptoms of fluoride toxicity point towards some kind of profound metabolic dysfunction, and are strikingly similar to the symptoms of hypothyroidism.


Schizophrenia is very occasionally misdiagnosed as HypothyroidismSchizophrenia
The book Natural Healing for Schizophrenia reports that 10% of patients diagnosed with "schizophrenia" have been found to have thyroid imbalances.

Recommendations for Hypothyroidism:


Ginger Root may help with HypothyroidismGinger Root
The liberal use of ginger, cayenne and other spicy herbs has helped restore a normal body temperature for some people with hypothyroidism.
Bladderwrack may help with HypothyroidismBladderwrack
People living near oceans or seas have a historically low rate of hypothyroidism that is due, in part, to ingestion of iodine-rich food, such as seafood and seaweeds like bladderwrack.  Either hypothyroidism or goiter due to insufficient intake of iodine may possibly improve with bladderwrack supplementation, though human studies have not confirmed this at the time of writing.


Raw Food Diet often helps with HypothyroidismRaw Food Diet
A short-term (2-4 week) diet of only raw foods, with heavy emphasis on raw greens, seaweed, nuts, seeds, sprouted beans and seeds, and freshly extracted vegetable juices, can improve thyroid function.  Although a long-term raw food diet may help you feel warmer, many raw foodists find they tend to be cold.


Natural Progesterone is highly recommended for HypothyroidismNatural Progesterone
Within weeks of using adequate natural progesterone cream, symptoms of hypothyroidism may disappear.  This is because natural progesterone increases sensitivity of estrogen receptors, and can therefore redirect estrogen activity and inhibit many of unopposed estrogen's undesirable side-effects, which include interference with thyroid hormone activity.

Lab Tests/Rule-Outs

Test Adrenal Function may help with HypothyroidismTest Adrenal Function
Cortisol and DHEA are among the hormones produced by the adrenal glands.  It is possible that these hormones can reduce the immune system dysfunction seen in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  More studies are needed, but taking these medications appropriately carries little (if any) risk and can markedly improve the patient's function and overall health.


Iodine often helps with HypothyroidismIodine
Sometimes a low functioning thyroid gland will improve with the addition of iodine in some form.  Seaweeds and kelp have been found helpful.  See link between hypothyroidism and selenium.  Excessive iodine ingestion can cause either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and should be avoided.


Weak or unproven link: may be a sign or symptom of; may suggest; may increase risk of; is very occasionally misdiagnosed as
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Strong or generally accepted link: is often a sign or symptom of; often suggests; often increases risk of
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is a sign or symptom of; strongly suggests; increases risk of
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Weakly counter-indicative:
may contraindicate; may decrease risk of
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often contraindicates
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strongly contraindicates
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Very useful:
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