Menstruation

Definition of Menstruation:

The periodic discharge of blood, tissue fluid and mucus from the endometrium (lining of the uterus) that usually lasts from 3-5 days although 2-7 days is quite normal.  It is caused by a sudden reduction in estrogens and progesterone.  The first day of menstrual flow is considered day 1 of the menstrual cycle.

Also: Menses, Menstrual, Menstrual Flow, Menstrual Phase, Monthly Cycle

Topics Related to Menstruation

Adenomyosis

...the condition
“...When the endometrial tissue bleeds during menstruation, the old tissue and blood cannot get out of the muscle and flow out of the cervix as part of normal menses...”

Alfalfa

...as a treatment
“...Alfalfa has shown some estrogenic activity and may be useful in treating problems with menstruation and menopause...”
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More topics Related to Menstruation

Amenorrhea

...the condition
“Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by absent menstrual periods for more than three monthly menstrual cycles, and may be classified as primary or secondary...”
...related topic
“Absence or suppression of menses...”
...relationship to Brain Tumor
“Although amenorrhea (abnormal cessation of menstruation) is usually explained by something else, in rare cases it can be caused by a brain tumor...”
...relationship to The Effects Of Overtraining
“...For some women, simply explaining the need for adequate calorific intake to match energy expenditure results in increased intake and/or reduced exercise, and their menses resume...”

Andropause/Male Menopause

...the condition
“...Part of the reason for the controversy is that, in contrast to women, men do not have a clear-cut external sign, namely the cessation of menstruation...”

Anemia

...the condition
“...help the blood to clot; red blood cells containing hemoglobin, which allows them to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide; Risk factors for developing anemia include poor diet, intestinal disorders, menstruation, pregnancy, family history, and conditions such as cancer, kidney failure, liver failure...”

Aspartame (Nutrasweet) Avoidance

...as a treatment
“...hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia), menstrual cramps and other menstrual problems or changes, impotency and sexual problems, food cravings, weight gain, hair loss / baldness or thinning of hair, burning urination & other urination problems, excessive thirst or...”

Bayberry

...as a treatment
“...Bayberry appears to improve circulation and is a remedy for alimentary conditions, excessive menstrual bleeding and uterine discharge...”

Bone Density Scan

...as a treatment
“...In general, this testing is recommended for women 65 and older along with younger postmenopausal women who have further risk factors for osteoporosis, including ... Early menopause or late onset of menstrual periods...”

Breast Cancer

...the condition
“...Early onset of menstrual periods increases risk by affecting the amount of reproductive hormones a woman is exposed to during her lifetime...”
...our question about Early or late puberty onset (female)
“Early onset of menarche (beginning of the menstrual function) is a recognized risk factor for breast cancer, while a later menarche has been associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer...”
...recommendation Plant-Based Nutrition
“...Regarding children, plant-based diets may encourage a later menarche (beginning of the menstrual function), which has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in epidemiologic studies...”

Castor Oil

...as a treatment
“...Counter-Indicators and Warnings: Precautions include avoiding meal times, not using the pack during heavy menses, and avoiding contact with fabric that could become stained...”

Chanca Piedra (Break-Stone)

...as a treatment
“...a digestive, carminative (helps gas to be expelled from stomach and intestines), and vermifuge (expels worms and other parasites from the intestinal tract), diuretic, and emmenagogue (stimulates menstrual flow)...”

Chinese Thoroughwax

...as a treatment
“...It can be used to relieve spasms, muscle tension, lumps, bleeding due to heat and menstrual irregularity...”

Chlorophyll

...as a treatment
“...It has been used to ... improve blood clotting, for example in cases of heavy menstrual bleeding...”

Corpus Luteum

...related topic
“...If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum regresses, the levels of progesterone and estrogen recede, and the breakdown of the endometrium causes menstrual bleeding...”

Corticosteroids

...as a treatment
“...Anyone who is taking corticosteroids and has any of the symptoms listed below should check with the physician who prescribed the medicine as soon as possible ... Menstrual problems...”

Cushing's Syndrome / Hypercortisolism

...the condition
“...These include polycystic ovarian syndrome, which may cause menstrual disturbances, weight gain from adolescence, excess hair growth and sometimes impaired insulin action and diabetes...”

Diabetes Mellitus

...related topic
“...urination; weight loss in spite of increased appetite; fatigue; nausea; vomiting; frequent infections including bladder, vaginal, and skin; blurred vision; impotence in men; bad breath; cessation of menses; diminished skin fullness...”

Dong Quai

...as a treatment
“...Some women find that the use of dong quai during menstruation increases bleeding, and this should be monitored...”

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

...related topic
“Any abnormality of menstruation or bleeding caused by a hormonal disorder...”

Endometrial Polyps

...the condition
“...If a woman does not become pregnant, the endometrial lining sheds, causing a menstrual period...”

Endometriosis

...the condition
“...This condition causes tissue such as the endometrium (the tissue inside the uterus which is shed each month during menses) to build up outside the lining of the uterus, or in other parts of the uterus or other areas of the body...”
...related topic
“...Symptoms typically occur in a cyclic fashion with menstrual periods, the most common being pelvic pain and cramping before and during periods; pain during intercourse; inability to conceive; fatigue; painful urination during periods; gastrointestinal...”

European Skullcap

...as a treatment
“...The Cherokee used skullcap to stimulate menstruation, relieve breast pain, and encourage expulsion of the placenta...”

False Unicorn

...as a treatment
“...Considered a uterine tonic, it is often used for painful menstruation, pelvic fullness, and excessive menstrual bleeding...”

Fanconi Anemia

...the condition
“...Signs and Symptoms: Adult women who have Fanconi anemia may have some or all of the following signs and symptoms ... Delayed onset of menstruation...”

Feverfew

...as a treatment
“...Feverfew has been helpful in other conditions such as general swelling, arthritis, promoting menstrual flow and as a digestive aid...”

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

...the condition
“...This is important because some women may suffer from PMS and other menstrual irregularities due to underproduction of the hormone progesterone during the second half of their cycle...”

Fibroids

...the condition
“...Since they are located in the uterine endometrium, they can cause heavy or prolonged bleeding during menstruation; Subserous or Subserosal fibroids develop on the outside of the uterus and usually have the least symptoms...”

Folic Acid

...as a treatment
“...Folic acid is often used when there are any menstrual problems...”

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

...as a treatment
“...This activity has made GABA supplements one of the more useful substances for nerve-induced muscle spasms, Myofascial Pain Syndrome, trigger point pain, fibromyalgia, and some menstrual cramping...”

Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease

...the condition
“...Metabolism, Reproductive and Hormonal Symptoms Fatigue; Inability to lose weight; Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep; Infertility; History of miscarriage or spontaneous abortion; Menstrual problems (e.g. PMS); Thyroid disease; A hyperprolactinemia diagnosis; A Diabetes type I or II diagnosis; Hypoglycemia; Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOS); Endometriosis; Immune System Symptoms...”

Gulf War Illness

...the condition
“...Multiple Cancers; Auto-Immune Deficiencies; Unusual Fevers; Night Sweats; Fluid Buildup; Sleep Disturbances; Gastrointestinal signs or symptoms; Genetic Alterations; Abnormal Births; Birth Defects; Menstrual Problems; Reduced IQ; Confusion; Memory Loss; Blood In Stools and Urine; Fibromyalgia; Epstein Barr Syndrome; Sinus Diseases; Mycoplasma Fermentans; Incognitis Infections; Unusual Hair Loss;...”

Headaches

...the condition
“...Women may find fluctuating hormone levels (due to ovulation, menstruation, or birth control pills) are a contributing factor...”

Hemochromatosis (Iron overload)

...the condition
“...Conversely, blood donation, physiologic blood loss (through menstruation and pregnancy), and pathologic blood loss (for example, through peptic ulceration or inflammatory bowel disease) may decrease the amount of iron stored in the liver...”

Hepatitis

...the condition
“...Discard used items such as bandages and menstrual pads carefully so no one is accidentally exposed to your blood...”

Herpes Simplex Type II

...the condition
“...General causes of recurrent genital infection include common stressful conditions such as menstruation, emotional upset, pregnancy, and local trauma to the genitalia...”

High Body Fat Percentage

...the condition
“...Too low a body fat percentage results in amenorrhea (absence of menstrual periods) in women, because the body senses inadequate energy reserves or high physical stress – and won't sustain a pregnancy, for example...”

Hirsutism

...the condition
“...Disorders of the adrenal glands; Use of androgens; Older age; Signs and Symptoms: Symptoms and signs may include: Excess hair growth (on the face, arms, legs, or chest); Abnormal or absent menstrual periods; Decreased breast size; Male-pattern baldness (in a woman); Deepened voice; Increased size of clitoris; High blood pressure; Enlarged adrenal glands; Enlarged ovaries; Diagnosis and...”

Hormone Imbalance

...our question about Stress fractures
“...One study showed that 39% of female athletes with irregular menstruation develop stress fractures...”

Hypopituitarism

...the condition
“...Risk factors are related to the cause and may include previous history of diabetes insipidus, previous history of adrenal insufficiency, previous history of a pituitary tumor, cessation of menses in a premenopausal woman, and short stature...”

Hypothyroidism

...the condition
“...Symptoms include generalized fatigue, weight gain, thinning (brittle) hair, dry scaly skin, thin nails that break easily, constipation, alterations in menses, aching muscles, and slow heart rate...”

IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)

...the condition
“...Researchers also have found that women with IBS may have more symptoms during their menstrual periods, suggesting that reproductive hormones may exacerbate the problem...”

Indian Long Pepper

...as a treatment
“...Indian long pepper is used for the following ... stimulating and regulating menstrual flow...”

Interstitial Cystitis

...related topic
“...In many women, the symptoms get worse before their menstrual period...”

Iron Deficiency Anemia

...our question about your gender
“...The primary cause is blood lost during menstruation...”

Iron Requirement

...the condition
“...chronic diarrhoea or malabsorption syndrome), increased iron demands (as in pregnancy) and abnormal loss of blood from the body (for example hookworm, gastric ulcers and frequent or excessive menstruation)...”

Irregular Periods

...the condition
“...This will cause numerous pregnancy symptoms, including temporary cessation of menstrual periods...”

Lady's Mantle

...as a treatment
“...This is often used in cases of menorrhagia (excessive menstrual bleeding)...”

Lei Gong Teng

...as a treatment
“...In female patients treated with TP, reduction of menses was noted 4 weeks after initiation of therapy, and amenorrhea was observed in 30% and 90% of the cases respectively 3 months after and 6 months after starting use of the extract...”

Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency

...our question about Hot flashes
“Adrenal estrogen seems to be necessary to avoid hot flashes during normal menses when the ovarian production of estrogen drops...”

Maca

...as a treatment
“...Maca relieves menstrual issues and menopause symptoms...”

Manganese

...as a treatment
“...Manganese has been reported to reduce heavy menstrual flows and improve thyroid function (thyroid function is dependent on a balance of manganese and iodine, and a shortage of either could cause hypothyroidism)...”

Manganese Requirement

...the condition
“...Manganese deficiency symptoms include ... heavy menstrual periods...”

Marapuama

...as a treatment
“...It is also used as a neuromuscular tonic for weakness and paralysis, dyspepsia, menstrual disturbances, chronic rheumatism (applied topically), sexual impotency, influenza, and central nervous system disorders...”

Menopause

...related topic
“The cessation of menstruation (usually not official until 12 months have passed without periods), occurring at the average age of 52...”
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More topics Related to Menstruation

Menorrhagia

...related topic
“Abnormally heavy and/or long menstrual period...”

Menorrhagia (Heavy Periods)

...the condition
“Menorrhagia is the term for excessive menstrual bleeding i...”
...recommendation Test Thyroid Function
“The association of hypothyroidism with menstrual disturbances is well known...”
...recommendation Essential Fatty Acids
“Omega 3 EFAs may reduce bleeding in adolescent girls and improve other menstrual symptoms generally in women...”

Menstrual Cycle

...related topic
“The repeating monthly cycle in women consisting of ovulation, thickening of the uterine lining to allow for fertilization and (if the egg is not fertilized) the breakdown and discharge of the lining of the uterus...”

Metrorrhagia

...the condition
“...The bleeding, usually of normal or slight amount, occurs at either irregular or regular intervals outside of the normal menstrual flow...”

Migraine/Tension Headaches

...the condition
“Headaches are commonly classified under categories such as tension, sinus, migraine, menstrual and cluster among others...”
...our question about Menstruation-related headaches
“...Attacks that occur exclusively with menses, called "true menstrual migraine", affect about 14% of sufferers...”

Motherwort

...as a treatment
“...Any menstrual irregularity has been treated at one time or other with motherwort...”

Myasthenia Gravis

...the condition
“...Exacerbations may also occur before the menstrual period and during or shortly after pregnancy...”

Natural Progesterone

...as a treatment
“...Progesterone levels are best taken approximately seven days before menstruation...”

Neurostructural Therapy

...as a treatment
“...The following symptoms often benefit or even disappear in response to an NST session ... menstrual problems...”

Oregon Grape Root

...as a treatment
“...Traditional uses of Oregon grape include: acne, arthritis, bronchial congestion, chronic fatigue, eczema, hepatitis, herpes, hypoglycemia, indigestion, lymphatic congestion, menstrual problems, psoriasis, scrofula, syphilis, and vaginitis...”

Ovarian Cysts

...the condition
“...If pregnancy does not occur, the woman will experience a menstrual period as part of the process of the disappearing corpus luteum cyst...”

Ovary

...related topic
“...They usually produce one egg each month and whether the egg is fertilized or not, the reproductive process follows a monthly cycle, with constant changes in various hormone levels, preparing another opportunity for conception...”

Painful Menstruation (Dysmenorrhea)

...the condition
“...Women with severe primary dysmenorrhea have significantly higher prostaglandin levels in their menstrual fluid than do other women...”
...recommendation Vitamin E
“Supplementation with vitamin E (500 IU per day) from 2 days before menstrual onset through the third day of bleeding, for two consecutive menstrual cycles, reduced pain in a placebo-controlled trial of 100 young women with primary dysmenorrhea...”
...recommendation Magnesium
“...Magnesium is often at its lowest level during menstruation...”
...recommendation Inositol Hexaniacinate
“...Hudgins reported on a group of 80 women suffering from painful menstrual cramps who were supplemented with 100mg niacin twice daily, beginning 7 to 10 days before the onset of menses and then every 2 to 3 hours during heavy cramps...”
...recommendation Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
“In a well-designed controlled trial of 556 girls with moderate to severe menstrual cramping, vitamin B1 (100mg daily by mouth) for 3 months produced startling results...”

Parsley

...as a treatment
“...Parsley oil also was used to regulate menstrual flow in the treatment of amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, and is purported to be an abortifacient...”

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

...the condition
“...The cervical mucous plug and secretions may help prevent the spread of microorganisms to the upper genital tract, but it may be less effective during ovulation and menses...”

Perimenopausal Issues

...the condition
“...Indicators include irregular menstrual bleeding, severe mood swings, and episodes of anxiety or depression...”

Perimenopause

...related topic
“A transition time during which menstrual periods can become irregular and symptoms of menopause may be experienced prior to menopause...”

Phyllanthus

...as a treatment
“...[4] Phyllanthus has a wide number of traditional uses: employing the whole plant for jaundice, gonorrhea, frequent menstruation, and diabetes and using it topically as a poultice for skin ulcers, sores, swelling, and itchiness...”

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

...the condition
“...The conventional treatment of PCOS is directed primarily at the problems of hirsutism, menstrual irregularity and infertility...”

Postmenopause

...related topic
“The postmenopausal phase of a woman's life begins when 12 full months have passed since the last menstrual period and any menopausal symptoms have become milder and/or less frequent...”

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

...related topic
“Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman suffers severe depression, irritability, and tension before menstruation...”

Premenstrual Syndrome

...related topic
“...The symptoms begin about midcycle, are generally the most intense during the last seven days before menstruation and include: anger; acne; backache; bloating; fatigue; headache; sore breasts; changes in sexual desire; depression; difficulty concentrating; difficulty handling stress; irritability;...”
...relationship to Copper Toxicity
“...Taking extra zinc and vitamin B6 before the menstrual period can reduce copper levels and thus the symptoms of PMS...”
...recommendation Magnesium
“...Magnesium is often at its lowest level during menstruation, and many symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are relieved when this mineral is replenished...”
...recommendation Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
“...In another study, premenstrual acne flare-up was reduced in 72% of 106 affected young women taking 50mg of pyridoxine daily for one week prior and during the menstrual period...”

Premenstrual Syndrome PMS D (Depression)

...recommendation Magnesium
“...Magnesium is often at its lowest level during menstruation...”

Problems Caused By Being Overweight

...recommendation Raw Food Diet
“...Women adhering to the stricter forms stated that their menstruation became infrequent or stopped altogether...”

Progesterone Excess

...the condition
“...When no egg is fertilized, progestin levels fall and the lining is shed, which is what produces menstruation...”

Progesterone Low or Estrogen Dominance

...the condition
“...Research has shown that many women in their 30s – some even younger – will occasionally not ovulate during their menstrual month...”

Radiation Therapy (Radio Therapy)

...as a treatment
“...Women's menstrual periods may stop, and they may have hot flashes and vaginal dryness...”

Raw Food Diet

...as a treatment
“...Most of the women suffered menstrual irregularities and half of the women lost their menstrual periods altogether, which could lead to devastating osteoporosis...”

Schizophrenia

...the condition
“...This condition can produce a number of symptoms including lactation by a non-nursing woman and irregular or absent menstrual periods...”

Shepherd's Purse

...as a treatment
“...When taken internally, shepherd's purse can reduce heavy menstrual periods, and it has been used to treat postpartum hemorrhage...”

Somatoform Disorder

...the condition
“...the bladder (ischuria); Painful or difficult urination; Pain or problems during sexual intercourse; Ejaculatory dysfunction; Erectile dysfunction; Lack of interest in sex; Irregular periods; Heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia); Menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea); Diagnosis and Tests: The prerequisites for diagnosing somatoform disorder are...”

Squawvine

...as a treatment
“...In addition to conditions related to childbirth, the herb was used to treat postpartum depression, irregular menstruation, and bleeding...”

Test Estrogen Level

...as a treatment
“...In girls or women, these conditions might include early or delayed puberty, excessive menstrual bleeding, or lack of menstrual bleeding (amenorrhea)...”

Test Iron Stores (Ferritin)

...as a treatment
“...For reproductive-aged females, an additional route is the menstrual flux, which accounts for a wildly variable incremental loss...”

Thuja

...as a treatment
“...History; Source: Native Americans of the eastern United States and Canada used thuja for generations to treat menstrual problems, headaches, and heart ailments...”

Urinalysis

...as a treatment
“...In females, the specimen may contain vaginal contaminants such as trichomonads, yeast, and during menses, red cells...”

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

...recommendation Personal Hygiene Changes
“...During menstruation, change sanitary pads every 2-3 hours and tampons every 4-5 hours...”

Uterine Fibroids

...related topic
“...Some women never have symptoms, the most common of which are: heavy or prolonged menstrual periods; abnormal bleeding between menstrual periods; pelvic pain; frequent urination; low back pain; pain during intercourse; a firm mass, often located near the middle of the pelvis, which...”

Vaginal Depletion Pack

...as a treatment
“...It should not be used during menstruation...”

Vaginitis/Vaginal Infection

...the condition
“...Other factors such as wearing tight clothing, underwear, menstrual protection, feminine hygiene sprays and diet were not associated with candidiasis...”

Vitex / Chasteberry

...as a treatment
“Alternative Names: Chasteberry, Chaste Berry Vitex is one of the most popular botanicals in Europe for treating menstrual disorders and has been recognized as gentle and effective for 2,500 years...”

Vulvodynia / Vestibulitis

...the condition
“...Additionally, during your menstrual period, if you cannot tolerate a tampon string, you may cut off the string prior to insertion...”
...recommendation Hot Applications (Thermotherapy)
“...This can be done by placing the tea bags on menstrual pads to hold them in place or you can take a sitz bath in which tea bags have been soaked...”

White Peony Root

...as a treatment
“The effects of White Peony include nourishing the blood, regulating menstruation, reinforcing yin with astringent action to stop sweating, nourishing the liver pain and suppressing the liver-yang...”

Yarrow

...as a treatment
“...King's American Dispensary lists yarrow as one of the best agents for relief of menorrhagia (excess menstrual bleeding) because of its ability to relax the uterine wall...”

Yeast / Candida Infection

...the condition
“...Genitourinary ... Endometriosis (irregular or painful menstruation)...”

Zinc Requirement

...the condition
“...Symptoms of deficiency include ... disturbance of menstrual periods, pre-menstrual syndrome...”
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