Unexplained Sore, Tender Or Aching Muscles

What Causes Tender Muscles?

Tender muscles can have various causes, ranging in severity from 'minor' to 'generally fatal'.  Finding the true cause means ruling out or confirming each possibility – in other words, diagnosis.

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Diagnosis is usually a complex process due to the sheer number of possible causes and related symptoms.  In order to diagnose tender muscles, we could:

  • Research the topic
  • Find a doctor with the time
  • Use a diagnostic computer system.
The process is the same, whichever method is used.

Step 1: List all Possible Causes

We begin by identifying the disease conditions which have "tender muscles" as a symptom.  Here are eight of many possibilities (more below):
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Mercury Toxicity
  • Silicone Disease
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • Lupus (SLE)
  • Gastroenteritis
  • West Nile Virus
  • Vitamin D Need

Step 2: Build a Symptom Checklist

We then identify all possible symptoms and risk factors of each possible cause, and check the ones that apply:
short-term memory failure
regular unexplained nausea
much past amalgam filling removal
very early puberty onset
heavily coated tongue
major joint pain/swelling/stiffness
moderate unexplained weight loss
recurring mouth ulcers
occasional rashes
occasional confusion/disorientation
regular sore throats
being an unsocial person
... and more than 100 others

Step 3: Rule Out or Confirm each Possible Cause

A differential diagnosis of your symptoms and risk factors finds the likely cause of tender muscles:
Cause Probability Status
Pulmonary Fibrosis 90% Confirm
Silicone Disease 28% Unlikely
West Nile Virus 19% Unlikely
Dermatomyositis 2% Ruled out
Vitamin D Need 2% Ruled out
Mercury Toxicity 1% Ruled out
Lupus (SLE) 1% Ruled out
Gastroenteritis 0% Ruled out
* This is a simple example to illustrate the process

Arriving at a Correct Diagnosis

The Analyst™ is our online diagnosis tool that learns all about you through a straightforward process of multi-level questioning, providing diagnosis at the end.

If you indicate having muscle problems / disease, The Analyst™ will ask further questions including this one:
Do your muscles ache, or feel generally sore or tender to the touch for no obvious reason? Do not include sore muscles that are due to obvious causes such as flu or heavy exercise.
Possible responses:
→ No / there's an obvious reason / don't know
→ Minor muscle soreness/tenderness in the past only
→ Major muscle soreness/tenderness in the past only
→ Current minor muscle soreness/tenderness
→ Current major muscle soreness/tenderness
Based on your response to this question, which may indicate history of tender muscles, tender muscles or very tender muscles, The Analyst™ will consider possibilities such as:
Lupus, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

Muscle pains are a common symptom of SLE.  Less common is actual muscle inflammation which occurs occasionally during the course of SLE.

Allergy to Foods (Hidden)

Muscle pain can be due to food allergies.  Such pains will disappear after elimination of the offending foods from the diet.


Flu-like illness and muscle aches are generally present in cases of malaria.

Vitamin C Requirement

To test the effects of vitamin C in preventing muscle soreness, researchers at Western States Chiropractic College gave 3gm of vitamin C to students beginning 3 days before exposing them to the stress of exercise.  The vitamin C group developed significantly less muscle soreness than did the control group. [Pain 1992;50: pp.317-21]

Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

One third of patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis have musculoskeletal involvement.

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