In order to deal properly with premenstrual syndrome we need to understand and — if possible — remove the underlying causes and risk factors. We need to ask: "What else is going on inside the body that might allow premenstrual syndrome to develop?"
Accurate diagnosis of the factors behind premenstrual syndrome consists of three steps:
|Low Melatonin||4%||Ruled out|
|Copper Toxicity||2%||Ruled out|
|Low Progesterone||2%||Ruled out|
Do you suffer from Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)?
Possible responses:→ No / don't know
Melatonin can exhibit strong effects on the reproductive system, and the activity of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone is closely tied with its regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Abnormal biological rhythms and sleep-wake cycle disturbances are often a primary feature of periodic depression, another common characteristic of PMS. Melatonin imbalances have been specifically linked to PMS.
A study reported finding that women with PMS had an earlier decline in melatonin secretion, resulting in a shorter overall secretion time. "The data demonstrate that women with premenstrual syndrome have chronobiological abnormalities of melatonin secretion... The fact that these patients respond to treatments that affect circadian physiology, such as sleep deprivation and phototherapy, suggests that circadian abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome." [Arch Gen Psychiatr 1990;47(12): pp.1139-46]
Magnesium deficiency is strongly implicated as a causative factor in PMS. Red Blood Cell magnesium levels in PMS patients have been shown to be significantly lower than in normal subjects. The deficiency is characterized by a generalized hyperesthesia syndrome (with generalized aches and pains), and a lower premenstrual pain threshold. One clinical trial of magnesium in PMS showed a reduction of nervousness in 89%, mastalgia in 96%, and weight gain in 95%.
In a double blind study of women with normal menstrual cycles, lower dietary manganese (1.0mg versus 5.6mg) was found to increase mood and pain symptoms during the premenstrual phase. [Am J ObstetGynecol. 1993 May; 168(5): pp.1417-23]