Chronic Renal Failure

Definition of Chronic Renal Failure:

Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is irreversible, progressive impaired kidney function.  Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI) is the early stage, kidneys unable to function properly but not requiring dialysis.  Symptoms are usually only obvious with advanced disease and include frequent urination, swelling, anemia, fatigue, weakness, headache, weak appetite, and then nausea, vomiting, bad breath and itchy skin as kidneys stop filtering toxins from the blood.  Over time (up to 10-20 years), CRF usually progresses from CRI to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), also known as Kidney Failure.  ESRD patients die without dialysis or transplantation.

Also: Chronic Renal Insufficiency, End Stage Renal Disease, End-Stage Renal Disease, Kidney Failure, Renal Disease, Renal Insufficiency

Topics Related to Chronic Renal Failure

Acidosis

...the condition
“...Risk factors that increase your chance of developing acidosis include: a high-fat diet, low in carbohydrates; kidney failure; being obese (this can make it harder to breathe); dehydration (drink plenty of water); aspirin or methanol poisoning; having diabetes (make sure it is controlled, to avoid...”

Alport Syndrome

...the condition
“...With the passage of years, boys with Alport Syndrome develop the typical signs and symptoms of kidney failure – high blood pressure, swelling and, in some cases, impaired growth...”
...related topic
“...It causes chronic glomerulonephritis with destruction of the glomeruli (the tiny blood vessels within the kidneys that filter the blood) and eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease at an early age...”
...relationship to Chronic Renal Insufficiency
“...This means that the glomeruli undergo a gradual but persistent process of destruction, leading to kidney failure in many cases...”
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More topics Related to Chronic Renal Failure

Alzheimer's Disease

...the condition
“...These include heart failure, liver disease, kidney failure, thyroid disorders, respiratory diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency, and sexually-transmitted disease such as syphilis or AIDS...”

Anemia

...the condition
“...allows them to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide; Risk factors for developing anemia include poor diet, intestinal disorders, menstruation, pregnancy, family history, and conditions such as cancer, kidney failure, liver failure...”
...relationship to Chronic Renal Insufficiency
“Anemia is almost always present in cases of chronic renal failure, and can occur through any of the basic mechanisms (blood loss, excessive destruction of red blood cells, or low production of red blood cells...”

Ascites

...the condition
“...It can be caused by liver disease, various cancers, congestive heart failure, or kidney failure.  The most common cause of ascites is liver cirrhosis...”

Aspirin

...as a treatment
“...As a consequence of this, the good effects of COX-2, which gives protection of the stomach and kidneys are lost and problems with this such as ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney failure, fluid retention and high blood pressure can occur with the higher dosage...”

Baking Soda

...as a treatment
“...It helps remove excess fluids and waste from the bloodstream; daily intake improves kidney function and slows the progress of chronic kidney disease; it can also prevent and even reverse kidney failure.); Reduces blood acidity (injected intravenously, in cases of shock, severe dehydration, and uncontrolled kidney failure or diabetes); There are unproven claims that can it can be used...”

Boils, Abscesses, Carbuncles

...relationship to Chronic Renal Insufficiency
“People with certain illnesses, including kidney failure, are more at risk of developing boils.”

Boric Acid

...as a treatment
“...Long-term exposure to boric acid may cause kidney damage and, eventually, kidney failure.”

Chronic Renal Insufficiency

...the condition
“...Unlike acute renal failure with its sudden (but reversible) failure of kidney function, chronic renal failure is slowly progressive...”
...our question about Duration of suboptimally controlled diabetes
“Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of chronic renal failure.  In Singapore, statistics have shown that out of the 500 newly diagnosed kidney failure patients each year, 50% were caused by diabetes and 9% were caused by hypertension...”
...relationship to Magnesium Toxicity
“High levels of magnesium can develop in patients with kidney failure and in elderly people whose kidney functions are reduced...”
...relationship to Elevated Homocysteine Levels
“Homocysteine levels in patients suffering from chronic renal failure are significantly elevated at an early stage...”
...recommendation Essential Fatty Acids
“...These trials suggest that such therapy may be of use in the treatment of IgA nephropathy and chronic renal failure.  Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid manipulation results in an anti-inflammatory...”
...recommendation Folic Acid
“Patients with chronic renal failure have homocysteine levels that are significantly elevated at an early stage...”
...recommendation Vitamin E
“Vitamin E levels, independent of dietary intake, have been found to be lower in patients with chronic renal failure.  This reflects increased oxidative activity and suggests the need for antioxidants such as vitamin E...”
...recommendation against Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
“...In renal insufficiency, vitamin C levels were elevated, but not oxalate levels...”
...recommendation Baking Soda
“...The patients taking sodium bicarbonate were also less likely to develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) which causes people with CKD to require regular dialysis.”
...recommendation Chitosan
“In a study of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing long-term hemodialysis 450mg of chitosan 3 times a day for 12 weeks produced multiple benefits...”
...recommendation Homeopathic Remedies
“...Remedies such as Serum Anguillar Ichthyotoxin, Solidago and Urea have been found useful in dealing with chronic renal failure and its complications...”
...recommendation Heavy Metal Detoxification / Avoidance
“A study evaluated 272 men and women with chronic renal failure and found that there was a significantly increased risk from exposure to lead, copper, chromium, tin, mercury, welding fumes, silicon containing compounds, grain dust and...”

Cirrhosis of the Liver

...the condition
“...Other possible complications of cirrhosis include ... Kidney failure (hepatorenal syndrome)...”

Clostridium Difficile Infection

...the condition
“...Bad bacteria release toxins, which lead to a variety of symptoms, including ... Kidney failure...”

Clubbed Fingers Or Toes

...the condition
“...These include ... Kidney Failure...”

Colon Cleansing

...as a treatment
“...Regular treatments should be avoided by people with heart disease or kidney disease (renal insufficiency).  Colonics are inappropriate for people with bowel, rectal or anal pathologies where the pathology contributes to the risk of bowel perforation.”

Congestive Heart Failure

...relationship to Kidney Disease
Renal insufficiency due to underperfusion from a failing heart is more widespread than commonly thought.”

Diabetes Type II

...the condition
“...It can lead to blindness, heart disease, strokes, kidney failure, amputations and nerve damage...”
...recommendation Vitamin E
“...Another study showed that vitamin E (680 IU) along with vitamin C (1200mg) will reduce the albumin excretion rate in urine which reduces the risk of end stage renal disease associated with diabetes...”

Excess Animal Fat Consumption

...the condition
“...These diets also appear to protect to varying degrees against Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Crohn's disease, kidney failure, multiple sclerosis, premature aging, erectile dysfunction, prostate enlargement, and reduced male fertility...”

Fish Oils

...as a treatment
“...Taking cod liver oil in the same amounts that are recommended for fish oil can be toxic, and even more so in people who have chronic renal failure (because vitamin A can build up to toxic levels).”

Food Poisoning

...the condition
“...According to the CDC, some 2-7% of E. coli infections, mainly in the elderly and in children under 5, can lead to Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome which causes destruction of red blood cells and kidney failure.  All forms of botulism can be deadly and are considered medical emergencies...”

Germanium

...as a treatment
“...Because the inorganic form used in the semiconductor industry can cause kidney failure, Dr. Asai's chemical intuition told him that a water-soluble, organic complex of germanium would be a better answer...”

Glomerulonephritis

...the condition
“...IgAN is, however, not the most common cause of end-stage renal disease.  According to some estimates, IgAN accounts for only about 10% of end-stage renal failure...”
...recommendation Salt Intake Reduction
“...The purpose of such a renal diet is not to delay progression of IgAN, but mainly to minimize the uremic symptoms of chronic renal failure.”

Gout / Hyperuricemia

...the condition
“...Women develop gout at an older age than men and have twice the prevalence of hypertension, renal insufficiency and exposure to diuretics...”
...recommendation against Aspirin
“Among the more common predisposing factors for hyperuricemia are kidney failure from any cause, diuretics, dehydration, hormonal diseases, alcohol consumption and using low doses of aspirin...”
...recommendation NSAIDs
“...NSAIDs should be used sparingly in elderly patients and should be avoided in patients with renal disease and peptic ulcer disease, and in those receiving concurrent systemic anticoagulation...”
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More topics Related to Chronic Renal Failure

Heavy Metal Toxicity

...the condition
“...Arsenic Symptoms include nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, garlic odor on breath, excessive salivation, headache, vertigo, fatigue, paresthesia, paralysis, kidney failure, progressive blindness, and mental impairment...”

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

...the condition
“...names: Hamburger Disease Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition characterized by destruction of red blood cells, damage to the lining of blood vessel walls, and, in severe cases, kidney failure.  HUS affects mostly children under the age of 10...”

High/Increased Protein Diet

...as a treatment
“...Note that low protein diets (4% to 8%) are used routinely to treat patients with liver and kidney failure.”

Hyperparathyroidism

...the condition
“...In secondary hyperparathyroidism, a problem such as kidney failure makes the body resistant to the action of parathyroid hormone...”

Hypertension

...related topic
“...Hypertension increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure because it adds to the workload of the heart, causing it to enlarge and, over time, to weaken; in addition, it may damage the walls of the arteries.”

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

...the condition
“...This condition is associated with kidney disease (e.g. chronic glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis, polycystic renal disease, collagen disease of the kidney, obstructive uropathy) or pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism, hyperthyroidism, myxedema, coarctation of the aorta, or...”
...relationship to Glomerulonephritis
“...It is very important to treat hypertension by whatever means are necessary, because hypertension itself greatly increases the risk of progressing to end-stage renal disease.”

Hypokalemia

...the condition
“...by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave as seen on an electrocardiogram), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders.”

Kidney Disease

...the condition
“...Whether you get kidney disease is mostly due to bad luck, but whether it progresses to end-stage kidney failure does depend largely on what is done about it...”
...our question about Low-carbohydrate dieting
“...American Kidney Fund chair Dr. Crawford concluded, "Chronic kidney disease is not to be taken lightly, and there is no cure for kidney failure.  The only treatments are kidney dialysis and kidney transplantation...”
...relationship to Dehydration
Renal insufficiency can occur from underperfusion due to dehydration.”
...relationship to Mercury Toxicity (Amalgam Illness)
“Kidney disease, including kidney failure, is a possible symptom of mercury toxicity.”

Kidney Function Test Requirement

...recommendation Urinalysis
“...An abnormal urinalysis may occur 6 months to 10 or more years before symptoms of kidney failure appear.  Some urine tests require only a few ounces of urine, but others require collection of all urine produced for a full 24 hours...”

Kidney Stones (Urolithiasis)

...relationship to Kidney Disease
“A kidney stone that is obstructing will cause damage to the kidneys in the long run if left untreated and may even lead to end stage kidney failure.  Anyone with a past history of kidney stones should have regular screening performed as the recurrence rate is high.”

Magnesium Requirement

...the condition
“...Magnesium toxicity is more often associated with kidney failure, when the kidney loses the ability to remove excess magnesium...”

Malaria

...the condition
“...Infection with one type of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, if not promptly treated, may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma, and death...”

Mesenteric Ischemia

...the condition
“...Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic renal failure, being prone to forming blood clots, and previous myocardial infarction...”

Nephrotic Syndrome

...the condition
“...Other types of kidney diseases have less favorable outcomes, with high rates of progression to kidney failure.  When nephrotic syndrome is caused by another, treatable disorder (infection, allergic or drug reaction), the prognosis is very good.”

Neutrophilia

...the condition
“...Cancer that is spreading; Surgical removal or drainage of a source of bacterial infection (e.g. a boil) may increase neutrophilia; Sudden kidney failure; Ketoacidosis; Inflammation stimulates bone marrow release of neutrophils to the site of inflammation...”

Overmedication

...the condition
“...Some serious and common side-effects include: allergic reactions, heart problems, liver and kidney failure, weight gain/loss, and psychological effects...”

Pericarditis

...the condition
“...Other possible causes include chest trauma (for example after a serious car accident or heart surgery), bacterial infection (especially tuberculosis), autoimmune disease, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, cancers such as breast or lung cancer, some cancer treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy), and side-effects of other medications such as penicillin...”

Peripheral Vascular Disease

...the condition
“...Risk factors for peripheral vascular disease are similar to those for atherosclerosis and include ... Chronic renal failure...”

Peritonitis

...the condition
“...Most cases of bacterial peritonitis occur as a result of ascites due to chronic liver disease, or in kidney failure patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis...”

Pharyngitis ("Strep Throat")

...the condition
“...This leads to inflammation and, potentially, kidney failure.”

Protein Deficiency

...the condition
“...Protein Deficiency can also be a consequence of Cachexia, or Wasting Syndrome, which often occurs in cancer patients or those with certain diseases such as AIDS, kidney failure, or COPD...”

Pyelonephritis

...the condition
“...However, in a few people, the continuous destruction of the kidney leads to chronic renal failure which will require treatment...”

Rectal Cancer

...the condition
“...Mitomycin is associated with bone marrow, kidney, mucous membrane, and pulmonary toxicity, as well as kidney failure.  Cisplatin may cause hearing problems, serious disorientation, and anaphylactic (allergic shock) reactions, including respiratory distress and swelling.”

Salt Intake Reduction

...as a treatment
“...High-sodium diets are linked to a number of serious health problems, including high blood pressure, heart disease and kidney failure.  Do not add any form of salt to cooking or at the table...”

Scleroderma

...the condition
“...One of the most life-threatening, yet treatable, complications of systemic scleroderma (including CREST) is sudden kidney failure.  If your blood pressure is elevated over a certain point (to be determined by your doctor) you should call your doctor immediately...”

Seizure Disorder

...the condition
“...Known causes of seizures include ... Metabolic abnormalities found in diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalances, kidney failure, uremia, nutritional deficiencies and phenylketonuria (PKU)...”

Stress

...the condition
“...It also increases blood sugar levels, which over time can lead to diabetes, obesity, kidney failure, nerve damage, and vision problems...”

Test Magnesium Levels

...as a treatment
“...This technique correlates well with intracellular free magnesium levels in conditions such as diabetes, chronic renal failure and pregnancy...”

Tetanus

...the condition
“...Complications that can arise from a tetanus infection include ... Kidney failure...”

Uremia

...the condition
“Although the term "uremia" literally means the presence of urea (and other nitrogen-containing wastes) in the blood, it is actually the complex terminal stage of kidney failure.  Uremia can also be caused by NSAIDs, especially in older patients who are being treated primarily with ibuprofen for arthritis...”
...related topic
“Condition characterized by excessive urea and other nitrogen compounds in the blood due to renal insufficiency.”

Uric Acid Levels Low

...the condition
“...Drug(s) indicated for prevention of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic renal failure, can significantly reduce serum uric acid...”

Urinalysis

...as a treatment
“...In end-stage renal disease, specific gravity tends to become 1.007 to 1.010...”

Urinary Retention

...the condition
“...Increased bladder pressure can also force urine back up the ureters into the kidneys, leading to hydronephrosis (swelling of the kidneys), pyonephrosis (kidney infection), kidney failure, chronic kidney disease due to scarring, or sepsis...”
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