Antibody

Definition of Antibody:

A type of serum protein (globulin) synthesized by white blood cells of the lymphoid type in response to an antigenic (foreign substance) stimulus.  Antibodies are complex substances formed to neutralize or destroy these antigens in the blood.  Antibody activity normally fights infection but can be damaging in allergies and a group of diseases that are called autoimmune diseases.

Also: Antibodies

Topics Related to Antibody

A Low IgA Level

...the condition
“IgA stands for immunoglobulin A, one of the classes of immunoglobulins (also called antibodies) that are in the blood...”

A Low IgD level

...the condition
“IgD stands for immunoglobulin D, one of the classes of immunoglobulins (also called antibodies) that are in the blood...”
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More topics Related to Antibody

A Low IgE level

...the condition
“IgE stands for immunoglobulin E, one of the classes of immunoglobulins (also called antibodies) that are in the blood...”

A Low IgG Level

...the condition
“IgG stands for immunoglobulin G, one of the classes of immunoglobulins (also called antibodies) that are in the blood...”

A Low IgM Level

...the condition
“IgM stands for immunoglobulin M, one of the classes of immunoglobulins (also called antibodies) that are in the blood...”

A Low Platelet Count

...the condition
“...An IgG antibody attaches to the platelets and marks them to be removed from circulation...”

Addison's Disease

...the condition
“...Nowadays, the major cause of Addison's disease is an auto-immune reaction in which the body's immune system erroneously makes antibodies against the cells of the adrenal cortex and slowly destroys them...”

Alanine

...as a treatment
“...It supports the immune system and strengthens it by producing antibodies; it aids in the metabolism of glucose; it is an important source of energy for muscle tissue, the brain and central nervous system; useful in weight control...”

Ankylosing Spondylitis

...recommendation Grain-free Diet
“...Without starchy carbohydrates such as rice, potatoes and flour products, the number of Klebsiella are reduced in the gut and, subsequently, so is the production of antibodies to the bacteria that cause the inflammation...”

Antigen

...related topic
“A substance, usually protein or protein-sugar complex in nature, which, being foreign to the bloodstream or tissues of an animal, stimulates the formation of specific blood serum antibodies and white blood cell activity...”

Athletes Foot

...the condition
“...This trichophyde reaction, also known as tineas manuum, is an immune system response to fungal antigens (antibodies that fight the fungal infection)...”

Atrophic Gastritis

...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
“...Patients with antibodies to parietal cells (PCA) or intrinsic factor, or both, have atrophy of the fundal mucosa (Type A) and a very high rate of pernicious anemia, often associated with other autoimmune endocrine...”

Breast Cancer

...the condition
“...This preferred test is called AMAS (Anti-Malignin Antibody Screen) and is available for doctors worldwide through Oncolab...”

Cancer, General

...our question about Vegetarian, vegan or raw-food diet
“...Relatively high concentrations of anti-NeuGc antibodies can also be found in human blood...”

CBC (Complete Blood Count) Test

...as a treatment
“...Was the culture positive for strep throat? Did the test find antibodies to a virus that indicates an infection? But for many more tests, the meaning of the results depends on their context...”

Cellular Immunity

...related topic
“...Antibodies play less of a role...”

Chagas Disease

...the condition
“...If you think you might have this disease, see your health care provider who will order blood tests to look for the parasite or for antibodies in your blood...”

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

...the condition
“...Immunoglobulins are proteins called antibodies that the B cells of healthy individuals make to protect themselves from infection...”

Chronic Thyroiditis

...the condition
“...Often, autoantibodies (antibodies your body makes against itself) are present...”
...recommendation Selenium
“Three months of supplementation with 200mcg selenium daily reduced thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) but had no effect on Tg antibodies (TgAb) in a well-controlled study of 70 women with autoimmune thyroiditis...”

Colostrum / Transfer Factor

...as a treatment
“...In the United States and throughout the world, bovine colostrum was, due to its content of antibodies, used for immune purposes prior to the introductions of sulfa drugs and antibiotics...”

Consequences of Splenectomy

...the condition
“...These proteins, called antibodies, weaken or kill bacteria, viruses, and other organisms that cause infection...”

Consequences of Vasectomy

...the condition
“...Antigens that are released in the process can infiltrate the bloodstream and cause the body to manufacture antibodies to defend itself against them, with possible cross-reactivity to other body tissues...”

Cysteine / N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)

...as a treatment
“...Cysteine is a vital component of many proteins in the body, including all of those whose structure is dependent on a disulfide bond (for example, antibodies)...”

Cytokines

...related topic
“...Th1 (T-cell Helper type 1) promote cell-mediated immunity (CMI) while Th2 (T-cell Helper type 2) induce humoral immunity (antibodies)...”

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection

...the condition
“...Recipients of blood transfusions from donors with positive CMV antibodies are at some risk...”

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

...the condition
“...Diagnosis and Tests: DH is diagnosed through a skin biopsy, which involves removing a tiny piece of skin near the rash and testing it for the IgA antibody...”

Diabetes Type 1.5

...the condition
“...When special lab tests are done, they are found to have antibodies, especially GAD65 antibodies, that attack their beta cells...”

Diabetes Type I

...the condition
“...Previous research has suggested that children exposed to the insulin which can naturally be contained in cow's milk may develop antibodies to insulin...”

Diarrhea

...the condition
“...Other blood tests that can be of use include thyroid stimulating hormone, anti-nuclear antibody, anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies for celiac disease, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) for IBD, HLA typing, quantitation of serum immunoglobulin levels,...”

Digestive Enzyme (Trial)

...as a treatment
“...Pancreatic enzymes improve digestion and assimilation of proteins and other nutrients as well as reducing circulating immune complexes that cause antibody and autoantibody formation...”

Ehrlichiosis

...the condition
“...a granulocyte stain shows clumps of bacteria inside white blood cells; the platelet count shows decreased platelets (thrombocytopenia); liver enzymes show elevated transaminase; a fluorescent antibody test may turn positive for E...”

ELISA

...related topic
“...A test that detects the presence of the AIDS virus or Lyme Disease antibodies...”

Enlarged Lymph Nodes

...the condition
“...The lymph nodes make antibodies that will help keep you from being infected with a particular germ in the future...”

Enlarged Spleen

...the condition
“...considered a dual-purpose organ: it filters the blood and removes abnormal cells (such as old and defective red blood cells), and it makes disease-fighting components of the immune system (including antibodies and lymphocytes)...”

Environmental Illness / MCS

...relationship to Autoimmune Tendency
“...Alan LeVin and Vera Byers in 1992 reported finding anti-thyroid and anti-smooth muscle antibodies among MCS patients, leading to the conclusion that some MCS patients may develop autoimmune disease: The immune systems of MCS patients may generate antibodies to chemicals, or to their own...”

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

...the condition
“...Other consequences include increased lymphocytes and monocytes, and development of heterophil antibodies...”

Female Infertility

...the condition
“...If it has been determined that your body is producing antibodies that are damaging or destroying sperm, your partner should use a condom for six months...”

Gastritis

...the condition
“...Laboratory Findings ... Parietal-cell antibodies frequently occur in atrophic gastritis...”

Glomerulonephritis

...the condition
“...Against the antigen, body produces antibodies (protective against infection)...”

Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease

...the condition
“...Diagnosis and Tests: To diagnose celiac disease, physicians test blood to measure levels of antibodies to gluten...”

Gluten-free Diet

...as a treatment
“...Another method is to have a blood sample taken and tested for gluten antibodies...”

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

...the condition
“...Some theories suggest an autoimmune mechanism, in which the patient's defense system of antibodies and white blood cells are triggered into damaging the nerve covering or insulation, leading to weakness and abnormal sensation...”

Hapten

...related topic
“A small molecule that reacts with a specific antibody but cannot induce the formation of antibodies unless bound to a carrier protein or other large antigenic molecule...”

Hemolytic Anemia

...the condition
“...They are classified as either inherited (generally due to intrinsic cell defects), or acquired (due to the actions of extrinsic agents such as infectious agents, poisons, physical trauma, or antibodies)...”

Hepatitis

...the condition
“...Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) A positive test means that you are immune (cannot get hepatitis B)...”

High/Increased Protein Diet

...as a treatment
“...It is needed for growth, physical development, cell creation and repair, and by the immune system to produce antibodies...”

HIV/AIDS

...the condition
“...a mononucleosis-like syndrome can occur, characterized by prolonged fever, rigors, myalgias, arthralgias, rash, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea, and this is associated with seroconversion for the HIV antibody...”

Hives (Urticaria)

...the condition
“...The reaction involves the release of histamine from either mast cells or basophils causing an IgE (immediate type) mediated antibody response...”
...relationship to Chronic Thyroiditis
“Amongst patients with chronic hives and either treated hypothyroidism or a normally functioning thyroid gland, it is reasonable to test for anti-thyroid antibodies...”
...relationship to Autoimmune Tendency
“Some forms of chronic hives have an autoimmune origin which means, in about 30% of patients, that the immune system is producing antibodies against normal substances in the body and triggering the release of histamine by mast cells...”
...recommendation Thyroid Medications
“A study suggests that administration of thyroxine to patients with chronic urticaria associated with elevated thyroid antibodies can result in remission of the hives...”

Hookworm Infection

...the condition
“...from protein deficiency which manifests as dry hair, skin and edema, but protein loss can have far-reaching effects including reduced immunocompetence and reduced ability to produce gamma globulin (Antibody)...”

Humoral Immunity

...related topic
“This refers to immunity to infection created by proteins termed antibodies, often referred to as "B" cells...”

Hypercoagulation (Thickened Blood)

...the condition
“...Causes and Development: There are at least three possible causes or contributing factors ... Virii, bacteria, mycoplasmas, and/or parasites activate certain antibodies in the immune system that trigger the production of thrombin, generate SFM and result in fibrin deposits...”

Hyperthyroidism

...the condition
“...Graves' disease represents a basic defect in the immune system, causing production of immunoglobulins (antibodies) which stimulate and attack the thyroid gland, causing growth of the gland and overproduction of thyroid hormone...”

IgE

...related topic
“Immunoglobulin E is a type of antibody produced by IgE plasma cells...”

Immune System Imbalance (TH2 Dominance)

...the condition
“...immunity (Th1) directs Natural Killer T-cells and macrophages to attack abnormal cells and microorganisms at sites of infection inside the cells, humoral immunity (Th2) results in the production of antibodies used to neutralize foreign invaders and substances outside of the cells...”
...recommendation Digestive Enzyme (Trial)
“Digestive enzymes improve digestion and assimilation of proteins and other nutrients, reduce circulating immune complexes that cause antibody and autoantibody formation...”

Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut

...the condition
“...Antibodies are then produced against once harmless foods and your immune system becomes increasingly occupied with chores it should not have to be performing...”
...recommendation Gluten-free Diet
“...Patients suffering from this condition as well as reduced amounts of normal gut flora have high levels of antibodies to gliadin and casein...”
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More topics Related to Antibody

Infectious Mononucleosis - Mono

...the condition
“...The mono spot test identifies an antibody which is present in mononucleosis and is the test most commonly used to tell whether someone has mono or some other ailment...”

Iron Deficiency Anemia

...relationship to Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease
“...In one study, 200 consecutive patients of a hematology clinic were screened for antigliadin and antiendomysial antibodies...”

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

...the condition
“...Antinuclear antibody may be positive, if so, it is often in a speckled pattern...”

Liver Function Test Requirement

...the condition
“...Mitochondrial Antibodies Test...”

L-Lysine

...as a treatment
“...It is also a key player in the production of various enzymes, hormones, and disease-fighting antibodies...”

Low T-Helper (CD4) Cell Level

...the condition
“...These antigens cause T-cells to become active and produce antibodies...”

Lupus, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

...the condition
“...SLE is a complex disorder resulting from the production of antibodies that attack the DNA and proteins within healthy cells and the generation of circulating immune complexes...”
...relationship to Chronic Thyroiditis
“Approximately 10% of lupus patients have thyroid antibodies, and autoimmune thyroiditis occasionally coexists with SLE...”

Lyme Disease

...the condition
“...Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are present, but the laboratory is unable to detect them...”

Lymphocyte

...related topic
“...The B-lymphocytes are primarily responsible for antibody production...”

Lymphokines

...related topic
“...These substances are not antibodies, but they play a vital role in the on-board defense system...”

Lysine

...related topic
“...Important for growth, tissue repair, and the production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies...”

Lysozyme

...as a treatment
“...Function: Lysozyme is an enzyme that degrades the polysaccharide protective coating on the surface of many bacteria and viruses (glycoprotein covering) to allow other enzymes and antibodies to find there appropriate attachment site...”

Macrophage

...related topic
“...This allows T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes to taste the particle (an epitope) and form an antibody response...”

Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia

...the condition
“...Diagnosis and Tests: Between 50 and 75% of patients with pernicious anemia have antibodies to IF, and 93% have antibodies to parietal cells which means this is another autoimmune disorder...”
...recommendation Test for B12 Levels
“...Usually, the presence of the intrinsic factor (IF) is determined by testing for the presence of antibodies to the IF in the blood...”

Meniere's Disease

...relationship to Autoimmune Tendency
“About 60% of patients with Meniere's disease are found to have antibodies for inner ear proteins...”

Multiple Myeloma

...the condition
“...It is a cancer of the plasma cell, an important part of the immune system that produces immunoglobulins (antibodies) to help fight infection and disease...”

Multiple Sclerosis

...recommendation Conventional Drug Use
“...Most of the destruction of the myelin sheath takes place from actions of the white blood cells and their antibodies...”

Myasthenia Gravis

...the condition
“...In myasthenia gravis, antibodies produced by the body's own immune system block, alter or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine...”
...recommendation Conventional Drug Use
“...Some medications improve neuromuscular transmission and increase muscle strength, and some suppress the production of abnormal antibodies...”

Osteonecrosis

...the condition
“...Rheumatoid Arthritis is an inflammatory autoimmune disease in which the body's natural defenses against foreign agents (antibodies & lymphocytes) attack healthy joints...”

Osteoporosis - Osteopenia

...the condition
“...Prolonged use of pork calcitonin can lead to the production of neutralizing antibodies...”

Pharyngitis ("Strep Throat")

...the condition
“...It occurs when the immune system overreacts to the strep throat infection and produces excess antibodies that end up settling in the glomeruli (small blood vessels in the kidneys)...”

Pregnancy-Related Issues

...the condition
“...D (formerly Rh) blood typing and antibody screening is recommended for all pregnant women at their first prenatal visit...”

Rabies

...the condition
“...If possible, the head of the biting animal is submitted to the health department for fluorescent antibody testing for the rabies virus...”

Rheumatoid Arthritis

...the condition
“..." When it loses its antigenic signature, the bacteria are able to mask themselves against destruction by the immune system's antibodies which can no longer recognize them as antigens (foreign proteins)...”

Schizophrenia

...relationship to Allergy to Foods (Hidden)
“...Classical responses include creation of blood antibodies, histamine release, swelling, itching, runny nose, and others...”

See Infectious Disease Specialist

...as a treatment
“...The infectious diseases specialist may sometimes order blood serum studies of antibodies for unusual diseases...”

Seizure Disorder

...relationship to Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease
“Blood tests for gluten sensitivity antibodies were performed on 783 patients referred for seizures...”

Selenium

...related topic
“...In combination with Vitamin E, selenium aids the production of antibodies and helps maintain a healthy heart...”

Sjogren's Syndrome

...the condition
“...These patients are likely to have different antibodies circulating in their blood compared to people with the secondary form...”
...relationship to Chronic Thyroiditis
“Antithyroid antibodies are created when antibodies migrate out of the salivary glands into the thyroid gland...”

Soil Based Organisms

...as a treatment
“...The question is, are SBOs important for good health? Function: SBOs can help stimulate the immune system (creating a huge pool of uncoded antibodies) and break down hydrocarbons, thereby increasing overall absorption of nutrients...”

Stiff Man Syndrome

...the condition
“...Associated diseases ... Diabetes mellitus: Although different epitopes for the GAD antibodies in diabetes have been identified, stiff person syndrome and type 2 diabetes have demonstrated comorbidity...”

Susceptibility To Miscarriages

...the condition
“..... BLOCKING ANTIBODIES Early in pregnancy, the mother's immune system receives signals from the tiny fetus...”

T4 Helper Cells

...related topic
“...T4 cells perform very important roles in the immune system, protecting us from viral infections, helping to fight bacterial and fungal infections, producing antibodies, fighting cancer, and supporting other cells in the immune system...”

Tendency Toward Allergic Reactions

...the condition
“...Diagnosis and Tests: The most common types of allergy tests are: Skin tests to observe any reaction to substances applied to the skin; Challenge (elimination-type) tests; Blood tests to look for antibodies against certain allergens; Treatment and Prevention: Allergens can be used to diagnose allergies and even be injected as form of treatment...”

Tendency Toward Postpartum Depression

...the condition
“...The baby's thyroid can produce antibodies against the mother's thyroid and causes it to under-function...”

Test for B12 Levels

...as a treatment
“...Another testing pattern used by doctors to determine vitamin B12 status is to test for intrinsic factor (IF) antibodies...”

Test for Food Allergies

...as a treatment
“...The test should include both IgE and IgG antibodies in order to identify both immediate and delayed type allergens...”

Test for Helicobacter Pylori Infection

...as a treatment
“...pylori develop serum antibodies to the organism that can be detected in the blood...”

Test for Inhalant Allergies

...as a treatment
“...People with allergies have an allergic antibody called IgE (immunoglobulin E) in their body...”

Test for Parasites

...as a treatment
“...Blood antibody tests may be ordered to determine whether or not someone has been exposed to a parasite in the past (this may indicate a past or a chronic infection but is not used to detect a current...”

Threonine

...as a treatment
“An essential amino acid, Threonine is anti-aging, helps form Elastin and Collagen, supports the immune system, produces antibodies, helps digestive and intestinal tract function, and boosts metabolism...”

TMG (Trimethylglycine)

...as a treatment
“...Applications include ... Immune modulation: Improves antibody response, enhances B- and T-cell function, and regulates cytokines...”

Toxoplasmosis

...the condition
“...Diagnosis and Tests: Diagnosis involves looking for toxoplasmosis antibodies in the blood, a CT scan of the brain, an MRI of the head, a slit-lamp examination of the eyes, and/or brain biopsy...”

Vasculitis

...the condition
“...Immune complexes are formed when antigens bind to antibodies...”
...related topic
“...It involves immune mechanisms such as deposition of circulating immune complexes and direct attack by circulating antibodies...”
...relationship to Lupus, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
“...Another antibody, ANCA (anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody), can cause vasculitis in some individuals...”

Vegetarian Diet Consequences

...the condition
“...Mothers who drink milk pass cow antibodies along to their nursing infants through their breast milk...”

Vitamin B12 Requirement

...the condition
“...This is frequently caused by an immune system problem where antibodies attack the stomach lining and damage the cells that produce intrinsic factor...”

Vitamin B2 Requirement

...the condition
“...Riboflavin is also necessary for red blood cell formation, antibody production, and growth...”

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

...as a treatment
“...It activates many enzymes and aids in the absorption of vitamin B12, in immune system function, and in antibody production...”

Vitamin B-Complex Requirement

...the condition
“...Riboflavin is necessary for red blood cell formation, antibody production, and growth...”

Vitamin Pantothenic Acid Requirement

...the condition
“Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is required for release of energy from food; it helps in the functioning of the adrenal gland and in the formation of antibodies...”

Warts

...relationship to Weakened Immune System
“The immune system creates antibodies to help destroy viruses that enter the body, such as HPV which causes warts...”

Weakened Immune System

...our question about Having had an tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy
“The tonsils are part of the immune system and create antibodies (immunoglobulins) that help build immunity against infectious disease...”

West Nile Virus

...the condition
“...The most accurate way to diagnose this infection is serology, a test to detect the presence of antibodies against West Nile virus in CSF or serum (a blood component)...”
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