Increased Intestinal Permeability /
Leaky Gut

Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut: Overview

Alternative Names: Intestinal Hyper-Permeability; Increased Intestinal Permeability.

Leaky gut – or leaky gut syndrome (LGS) – is a poorly recognized but very common problem, which is rarely tested for.  This condition results from an overly-permeable intestinal lining with spaces between the cells of the gut wall.  These spaces allow "foreign" material (bacteria, toxins and food) to leak into your body where they should not be, placing an additional burden on the immune and detoxification systems.

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The barrier maintained by a healthy intestinal mucosa is an incomplete one to begin with.  Small numbers of molecules of different sizes and characteristics do cross the intact epithelium by both active and passive mechanisms.  Generally, the larger the molecule, the less likely it is to be allowed across.  Once the gut lining becomes inflamed or damaged, it becomes more difficult to keep foreign, larger particles out.  As the spaces between cells open up, larger particles are allowed to be absorbed into the body.

Normally the body sees only tiny food antigens and limited amounts of bacteria.  When it sees these new, larger ones, it considers them foreign invaders.  Antibodies are then produced against once harmless foods and your immune system becomes increasingly occupied with chores it should not have to be performing.  Your health becomes more difficult to maintain as increasing numbers of foods must be avoided for you to feel well.

Even though the gut is becoming leakier, vitamin and mineral absorption becomes reduced – not increased, as you might expect – because some carrier mechanisms of absorption become damaged as part of the process.  Many nutrients have to be carried across the barrier and will not otherwise be absorbed.

The junctions between cells not only need to be 'tight' but the surface area of the small intestine must be large for normal nutrient processing to occur.  Continued irritation and inflammation of the gut lining causes an even greater malabsorption by reducing the overall surface area of the lining.  Even when consuming the healthiest of diets, inadequate nutrient absorption may compound the problem of having to deal with all these new foreign invaders.

Causes and Development

Leaky Gut Syndrome (LGS) occurs when the wall of the GI tract is damaged.  A healthy intestinal wall allows only nutrients to pass into the bloodstream; when it is damaged, larger molecules – such as incompletely digested fats, proteins and toxins – slip through, as well.  Your body, recognizes these substances as foreign and forms antibodies to them, which is why you suddenly become allergic to foods you've always eaten without a problem.  LGS also causes "environmental allergies", causing the individual to responds to various inhalants from the environment.  Furthermore, one can form antibodies to proteins similar or same as human proteins, and then your immune system starts to attack parts of the body.  This is how autoimmune diseases, like MS or arthritis "work".  Deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are common with persons with LGS because, they lack cells to move minerals and vitamins from the gut to the blood.

Candida albicans is a major cause.  If you have Candida overgrowth in GI tract you also have Leaky Gut Syndrome.  Candida overgrowth causes LGS : when Candida changes from yeast to fungal form it forms rhizoids, a root like structure, that breaks the intestinal walls.  Even when you get Candida in balance and heal the gut, your food allergies will remain for a while because you will still have the antibodies to that food.

Stress. The intestinal lining replaces itself, on the average, every 14 hours.  To replace intestinal walls you need blood and the first organ to lose blood during stressful situations is intestinal tract.  If you experience a lot of stress, your intestinal lining will not regenerate and LGS becomes likely.

Antibiotics and steroids decrease number of friendly bacteria, allowing Candida to proliferate, which causes LGS.

Hormonal imbalance allows Candida to proliferate, a primary cause of LGS.

Alcohol and caffeine decrease number of friendly bacteria, and again allow Candida to proliferate.

Parasites or bacteria such as Giardia or H.  Pylori.

Food allergies aggravate LGS.

Enzyme deficiencies e.g. celiac disease, lactase deficiency causing lactose intolerance.

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like ibuprofen, aspirin, etc.  interfere with mucus production.

Chemicals in fermented or processed food.

Complications

If the gut is not healthy, the rest of the body cannot be either.  LGS makes it increasingly difficult to maintain a sense of wellness.  Chemical sensitivity, fibromyalgia and escalating food allergies are among the many manifestations of a leaky gut.

Conditions that suggest Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut:

Allergy

Digestion

Infections

Respiratory

Symptoms - Liver / Gall Bladder

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Risk factors for Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut:

Addictions

Allergy

Autoimmune

Diet

Drug Side-Effect

Immunity

Infections

Bacterial Dysbiosis

It is likely that both yeast and bacterial overgrowth commonly occur together; overgrowth of either can lead to Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Yeast / Candida Infection

It is likely that both yeast and bacterial overgrowth commonly occur together; overgrowth of either can lead to Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Musculo-Skeletal

Parasites

Roundworm Infection

Types of roundworm called Strongyloides and Ascaris lumbricoides can cause increased intestinal permeability.

Supplements, Medications, Drugs

Pain medication use

The overuse of pain medication can eventually lead to leaky gut syndrome.

Symptoms - Allergy

Symptoms - Head - Nose

Symptoms - Respiratory

Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut suggests the following may be present:

Addictions

Autoimmune

Diet

Drug Side-Effect

Immunity

Infections

Yeast / Candida Infection

It is likely that both yeast and bacterial overgrowth commonly occur together; overgrowth of either can lead to Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Bacterial Dysbiosis

It is likely that both yeast and bacterial overgrowth commonly occur together; overgrowth of either can lead to Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Musculo-Skeletal

Recommendations for Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut:

Amino Acid / Protein

Diet

Gluten-free Diet

Removal of wheat and dairy products from the diet will produce temporary relief of some of the symptoms of increased intestinal permeability.  Patients suffering from this condition as well as reduced amounts of normal gut flora have high levels of antibodies to gliadin and casein.

Dairy Products Avoidance

See the link between Intestinal Permeability and a Gluten-free diet.

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