Type Of Diabetes

Evaluating Risk Factors: Different Types Of Diabetes

Evaluating your likely current (and near future) state of health means taking into account the risk factors — such as type of diabetes — that affect you.   Our medical diagnosis tool, The Analyst™, identifies major risk factors by asking the right questions.

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If you indicate having diabetes, The Analyst™ will ask further questions including this one:
What kind of Diabetes do you have? Type 1 is IDDM or Juvenile Diabetes. Type 2 is typically of adult onset. Note: Type 1.5 is called Slow Onset Type 1 or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA).
Possible responses:
→ Not applicable / don't know
→ Type 1
→ Type 1.5
→ Type 2 controlled without insulin
→ Type 2 / Adult onset requires insulin

The Diagnostic Process

Based on your response to this question, which may indicate type 1 diabetes, adult latent autoimmune diabetes, type 2 diabetes NIDD or type 2 diabetes IDD, The Analyst™ will use differential diagnosis to consider possibilities such as:
Coronary Disease / Heart Attack

It is not clear yet if people with type 1.5 have the same high risk for cardiovascular problems as individuals with type 2.

Alzheimer's Disease

According to a new study in Neurology, diabetes mellitus may not only damage the function of the eye, limbs, kidneys, and heart – it may also impair the function of the brain and hasten the process of senile dementia.

Researchers found that diabetes mellitus nearly doubles the risk of developing both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, according to the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective analysis which tracked dysglycemia and dementia in over 6,000 individuals over age 55.  Diagnosis of diabetes was based on World Health Organization criteria using a glucose tolerance test.

A related editorial called Alzheimer's a possible "brain-type diabetes".  Besides damaging important blood vessel networks and increasing the risk of small "silent" strokes deep inside the brain, dysglycemia may be directly involved in the development of the neurofibrillary tangles, the clumping of nerves and fiber tissue inside the brain characteristic of Alzheimer's.

The researchers noted that advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), proteins damaged by chronically high blood sugar levels, are commonly found inside these tangles.  "In brains of AD patients the receptor for AGE appears overexpressed," they noted.  "Activation of this receptor leads to increased oxidative stress that may result in cellular damage."

Diabetes also disrupts insulin signaling to other cells in the body.  This altered signaling may increase the activity of a neuronal enzyme that stimulates phosphorylated tau proteins to build up, a key trigger mechanism cited as one of the earliest signs of Alzheimer's.

NOTE: This study strongly suggests the important potential role of glycation products and insulin response, not just glucose levels, in the etiology of degenerative disease.

Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia

Relatives of people with Type 1 Diabetes, as well as the sufferers themselves, run a risk of developing celiac disease.  The resulting inflammation and tissue damage reduces vitamin B12 absorption and may lead to Pernicious anemia, which occurs in approximately 1 in 50 adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy will occur in 90% of persons with type 1 diabetes.

Cardiomyopathy

People with diabetes have been reported to be at increased risk of being diagnosed with DCM.

Magnesium Requirement

Hypomagnesemia has been demonstrated in both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.  A low intake of magnesium, which is a common deficiency, has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes in several studies.  Magnesium deficiency in diabetes is most likely the result of increased urinary magnesium losses secondary to chronic glycosuria.  However, short-term improvement in glycemic control has not been shown to restore the serum magnesium level.  Long-term studies may be needed to resolve this discrepancy.

Pneumonia

Diabetes is a risk factor for the development of pneumonia.

Poor Circulation

Up to 50% of all people with leg artery disease have diabetes; for them, controlling both conditions is crucial.  Diabetes increases your risk for leg artery disease fourfold, and accounts for nearly half of all amputations in the U.S.  that aren't related to accidents.

Diabetes makes hardening of the arteries much more dangerous (especially in the feet and toes) through several different mechanisms, and it's still not fully understood which ones matter most.  People with diabetes are prone to nerve damage in the legs and feet, which means they often may overlook minor injuries.  This, combined with poor circulation that slows wound healing, can cause small wounds to develop into more serious infections.  Diabetes also makes people more likely to develop blockages in smaller vessels far from the heart, and those blockages tend to be more widespread and harder to treat.

Stroke

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related death.  People with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease.  At least 65% of people with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke.

Periodontal Disease - Gingivitis

If you are diabetic, you are at higher risk of developing infections, including periodontal diseases.  These infections can in turn impair the body's ability to process and/or utilize insulin, creating a vicious circle in which your diabetes may be more difficult to control and your infection more severe than in a non-diabetic.  [Journal of Periodontology November 1999]

Restless Leg Syndrome

Adults who develop (latent onset) Type 1 diabetes, will never develop Type 2.

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