Cobalamin

Definition of Cobalamin:

Essential for normal growth and functioning of all body cells, especially those of bone marrow (red blood cell formation), gastrointestinal tract and nervous system, it prevents pernicious anemia and plays a crucial part in the reproduction of every cell of the body i.e.  synthesis of genetic material (DNA).

Also: B12, B-12, Cobalamine, Vitamin B12

Topics Related to Cobalamin

Addison's Disease

...the condition
“...Less commonly associated auto-immune diseases are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and insufficiencies of the parathyroid glands, gonads, and vitamin B12 absorption (pernicious anemia)...”

Alfalfa

...as a treatment
“...Powdered Alfalfa contains vitamins A, B-1, B-6, B-12, C, E, & K-1, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid and many essential and nonessential amino acids...”

Alzheimer's Disease

...recommendation Vitamin B-Complex
“Optimize your B-complex status, especially folic acid and B12...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Low levels of vitamin B12 have been linked to an increased risk Alzheimer's disease...”

More topics Related to Cobalamin

Anemia

...the condition
“...To produce hemoglobin and red blood cells, the body needs iron, vitamin B12, folate and other nutrients...”

Anxiety

...the condition
“...Treatment and Prevention: Nutrients such as calcium and magnesium, B-vitamins, niacinamide, B12 injections (especially if stomach acid production is insufficient), tryptophan with inositol and chromium, valerian root, and GABA can have a calming effect...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Low B12 levels have been found to be related to self-reported overall distress level and specifically to depression, anxiety, confusion, and possibly nervousness as well as to clinically rated depressed...”

Asthma

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“...When given sublingually prior to a sulfite challenge, vitamin B12 appears to be especially effective in cases of asthma caused by sulfite sensitivity...”

Atherosclerosis

...recommendation Folic Acid
“For improved homocysteine metabolism, folic acid (800mcg per day), B6 (50mg per day), B12 (400mg per day), betaine (200 to 1,000mg per day are recommended...”

Atrophic Gastritis

...the condition
“...These bacteria, which are not killed by the normal stomach acid, interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12...”

Banana

...as a treatment
“...Smoking: Bananas can help people trying to give up smoking, as the high levels of Vitamin C, A1, B6, and B12 that they contain, as well as the potassium and magnesium found in them, help the body recover from the effects of nicotine withdrawal...”

Bell's Palsy

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12, was compared with steroids in a trial involving 60 patients with Bell's palsy...”

Biotin

...as a treatment
“...Biotin also assists in the synthesis and utilization of Vitamin B-9 (Folic Acid), Vitamin B-12 (Cobalamin), Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid), and protein...”

Bruising Susceptibility

...the condition
“...Possible causes of bruising include ... Nutritional deficiencies, such as deficiency in vitamins C, K, B12, or folic acid...”

Bursitis

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
Vitamin B12 injections at 1mg daily for two weeks has eliminated pain in the majority of cases of shoulder and hip bursitis...”

Canker Sores (Aphthous Ulcers)

...relationship to Iron Requirement
Vitamin B12, folate, zinc and iron have been shown to be effective in up to 60% of patients with canker sores when such a vitamin or mineral deficiency has been documented...”
...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
Vitamin B12, folate, zinc and iron have been shown to be effective in up to 60% of patients with canker sores when such a vitamin or mineral deficiency has been documented...”
...relationship to Folic Acid Deficiency
Vitamin B12, folate, zinc and iron have been shown to be effective in up to 60% of patients with canker sores when such a vitamin or mineral deficiency has been documented...”

CBC (Complete Blood Count) Test

...as a treatment
“...RBCs are normally all the same size and shape; however, variations can occur with vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, iron deficiency, and with a variety of other conditions...”

Chronic Fatigue / Fibromyalgia Syndrome

...the condition
“...Consider vitamin B12 injections at higher doses (2,000-5,000mcg) at least once per week and possibly more for at least eight to ten weeks...”

Cirrhosis of the Liver

...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“The liver is the body's main store of vitamin B12...”

Coronary Disease / Heart Attack

...recommendation Vitamin B-Complex
“105 male and female subjects with coronary artery disease who received folic acid (1mg/day), vitamin B12 (400mcg/day) and vitamin B6 (10mg/day) experienced a significant reduction in reblockage after angioplasty over those who did not take the vitamins...”

Crohn's Disease

...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“Crohn's disease can lead to malabsorption of vitamin B12...”

Depression

...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
“...Blood tests revealed that a deficiency in vitamin B12 was relatively common...”
...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“Studies show that one out of four people hospitalized for depression is deficient in pyridoxine and cobalamin...”
...relationship to Vitamin B-Complex Requirement
“...Studies show that one out of four people hospitalized for depression is deficient in pyridoxine and cobalamin...”

Diabetes Type I

...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
“...The resulting inflammation and tissue damage reduces vitamin B12 absorption and may lead to Pernicious anemia, which occurs in approximately 1 in 50 adults with Type 1 Diabetes...”

Diarrhea

...the condition
“...Short stature, weakness due to multifactorial anemia (iron, folate and occasional vitamin B12 deficiency), bone pain and spontaneous fractures from vitamin D and calcium malabsorption, bruising and bleeding related to vitamin K deficiency, gas and bloating due to carbohydrate...”

Elevated Homocysteine Levels

...relationship to Ulcerative Colitis
“...As expected, those with vitamin B12 deficiency tended to have higher homocysteine levels...”
...relationship to Vitamin B-Complex Requirement
“..."Homocysteine may, in fact, be a more sensitive marker of vitamin B12, B6 or folate deficiency and...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Since most people with a high homocysteine level don't get enough folic acid, vitamin B6 or B12 in their diet, supplementing with these vitamins helps return homocysteine to normal levels...”
...recommendation Folic Acid
“A deficiency of vitamin B12 is associated with elevated homocysteine levels and folic acid is essential for its proper metabolism...”

Folic Acid

...as a treatment
“...5mg, or even 10mg, are available only by prescription because of the concern of masking vitamin B12 deficiency...”
...related topic
“A B-complex vitamin that functions along with vitamin B-12 and vitamin C in the utilization of proteins...”

Folic Acid Deficiency

...the condition
“...In the body, folic acid is found mainly as methyl folate, and vitamin B12 is needed to convert it back to the active THFA...”
...relationship to Osteoporosis - Osteopenia
“Folate (folic acid) and the B-vitamins involved in homocysteine conversion (such as B12 and B6) may be beneficial in reducing the risk of osteoporosis because high levels of homocysteine are implicated in chronic diseases such as osteoporosis...”

Gastritis

...the condition
“...Laboratory Findings ... Decreased serum vitamin B12 due to decreased formation of intrinsic factor by atrophic gastric parietal cells...”

Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease

...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“Celiac disease can lead to malabsorption of vitamin B12...”

Helicobacter Pylori Infection

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“...Pylori infection may result in Vitamin B12 deficiency...”

Hepatitis

...recommendation Vitamin B-Complex
“B-complex (50 to 100mg per day), especially Folic Acid (800 to 1000mcg per day) and B12 (1000mcg per day) are needed for good liver function...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
Vitamin B12 (with or without folic acid) has been reported in studies from the 1950s to help some people with hepatitis...”

Histapenia (Histamine Low)

...the condition
“...Treatment and Prevention: The treatment program consists of the administration of zinc, manganese, vitamin C, niacin, vitamin B12, and folic acid...”
...recommendation Folic Acid
“The rationale underlying this treatment is that folic acid in conjunction with vitamin B12 injections raises the blood histamine while lowering the degree of symptoms...”

Hives (Urticaria)

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
Vitamin B12 injections, at least 1000mcg weekly, has been reported to reduce the frequency and severity of urticaria in chronic cases...”

Hydrochloric Acid Deficiency

...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“Achlorhydria leads to improper absorption of nutrients such as B12...”

Hyperthyroidism

...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
“Hyperthyroidism is one of the minor causes of B12 deficiency...”

IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)

...recommendation Vitamin A
“See the link between IBS and Vitamin B12...”
...recommendation Calcium
“See the link between IBS and Vitamin B12...”
...recommendation Vitamin K
“See the link between IBS and Vitamin B12...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Vitamins B12, A, D, E and K along with calcium and a lactose-free diet are often recommended by clinicians treating IBS...”
...recommendation Vitamin E
“See the link between IBS and Vitamin B12...”
...recommendation Vitamin D
“See the link between IBS and Vitamin B12...”

Ileum

...related topic
“...The last foot of the ileum is the only absorption site available for important dietary substances such as vitamin B12, folic acid, some essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins, and recycled bile acids...”

Insomnia

...the condition
“...Vitamin B12 can help with fatigue, insomnia, depression, and the anxiety of getting older, especially if low stomach acid is suspected...”

Intestinal Malabsorption Syndrome

...the condition
“...Specific causes -- of which there are many -- lead to different patterns in malabsorption, involving for example fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, protein or carbohydrates...”

Intrinsic Factor

...related topic
“One of two proteins secreted from the lining of the stomach whose sole purpose is (it seems) to cradle B12 and carry it through the digestive system until it reaches the absorption sites in the last foot of small intestine...”

Liver Cancer

...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“The liver is the body's main store of vitamin B12...”

Liver Detoxification Phase II Support

...as a treatment
“...The lipotropic agents, choline, betaine, methionine, vitamin B6, folic acid, and vitamin B12, are useful as they promote the flow of fat and bile to and from the liver...”

Low Melatonin Level

...the condition
“...Causes and Development; Contributing Risk Factors: Several factors impair the production of melatonin, including excess intake of vitamin B12 (over 3,000mcg per day) and excess exposure to light during evening hours...”

Malabsorption

...related topic
“Improper utilization of needed and available nutrients, either from impaired digestive function (such as B12 being unabsorbed because of gastritis), impaired absorption (poor Vitamin E absorption because of an inflamed ileum) or impaired transport (the diminished blood proteins of the advanced alcoholic)...”

Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia

...the condition
“...Megaloblastic anemias are usually caused by a deficiency or defective absorption of either vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or folic acid...”
...relationship to Tapeworm Infection
“Signs of infection with large tapeworms (especially with the broad fish tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum) include conditions associated with vitamin B12 deficiency such as megaloblastic anemia...”
...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“The main indicator of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia, which in turn is due to a deficiency of intrinsic factor...”
...relationship to Bacterial Dysbiosis
“Abnormal bacterial populations may consume cobalamin, contributing to B12 deficiency states and resulting in megaloblastic anemia...”
...recommendation Test for B12 Levels
“A vitamin B12 deficiency is the most common cause of megaloblastic anemia...”
...recommendation Test Folic Acid Levels
“...Higher doses of folic acid (greater than 1mg per day) may improve or mask the anemia caused by a B12 insufficiency...”

Methylmalonic Acid

...as a treatment
“Alternative Names: Urine MMA test Elevated urinary methylmalonic acid is an early and sensitive indicator of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency...”

Multiple Sclerosis

...recommendation Test for B12 Levels
“...A vitamin B12 deficiency has very similar symptoms and is frequently misdiagnosed as MS; the type of anemia resulting from B12 deficiency is called pernicious anemia...”

Muscle Cramps / Twitching

...the condition
“...Vitamin B12 is often poorly absorbed through the intestinal tract and should be taken in a sublingual form...”

Myasthenia Gravis

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“To enhance acetylcholine levels take vitamin B12 1000mcg sublingually each day...”

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

...the condition
“...Diagnostic investigation can include ... Blood tests that help eliminate other causes of cytopenias, for example lupus, hepatitis, B12, folate deficiency, other vitamin deficiencies, renal failure or heart failure, HIV, hemolytic anemia, monoclonal gammopathy...”

Need For Routine Preventative Health Measures

...the condition
“...On the other hand, an individual's lifestyle choices may give rise to extra testing requirements, such as B12 levels in those who consume no animal products...”

Nervous Breakdown Tendency

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Chronic mild to moderate B12 deficiency may be associated with nervousness...”

Neuritis/Neuropathy

...relationship to Vitamin B-Complex Requirement
“Deficiencies of several B-vitamins (B1, B2, pantothenic acid, B6 and B12) can cause or contribute to neuritis...”
...recommendation Vitamin B-Complex
“...The disorder has been helped when vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, and pantothenic acid have been given together...”

Nutritional Deficiency Anemia

...the condition
“...Iron, vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies can also produce forms of nutritional anemia - Iron Deficiency Anemia and Megaloblastic Anemia...”

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

...recommendation Test for B12 Levels
“In one study of OCD patients, 20% had abnormally low serum vitamin B12 concentrations compared to the two control groups...”

Osteoporosis - Osteopenia

...recommendation Folic Acid
“Folate (folic acid) and the B-vitamins involved in homocysteine conversion (such as B12 and B6) may be beneficial in reducing the risk of osteoporosis because high levels of homocysteine are implicated in chronic diseases such as osteoporosis...”

Pernicious Anemia

...related topic
“Anemia caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency...”

Plant-Based Nutrition

...as a treatment
“...Following a vegan diet has been made easier in recent years since vegetarian products fortified with calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 are available in most food stores: vegetarian hot dogs, burgers, fortified soy and rice milks, vegetarian deli slices, and other meat analogs are readily available...”

Pregnancy-Related Issues

...recommendation Folic Acid
“...Folic acid, along with vitamin B12, is required for this biochemical conversion, as well as new tissue production and growth in both baby and mother...”
...recommendation Vitamin B-Complex
“...Folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12, and betaine all play a role in the proper use of these compounds...”

Raw Food/Fruitarian Diet Consequences

...the condition
“...A long-term raw food diet should be supplemented as the intake of vitamins D, B2, B3 (niacin), B12 and the minerals zinc and calcium are typically low...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
B12 supplementation is HIGHLY recommended for those on a raw food vegan diet...”
...recommendation Test for B12 Levels
“For raw-food vegans who have not been careful about consuming enough B12 (in the form of supplements or fortified foods), it would be wise to have B12 levels assessed and to commence dietary supplementation immediately...”

Restless Leg Syndrome

...recommendation Folic Acid
“..., you may respond very well to extra folic acid and B12, as well as a product high in specific nutrients that strengthen and elasticize the vessel walls...”

Schizophrenia

...the condition
“...Well-known causes ... Folic acid/B12 deficiency...”

Senile Dementia

...the condition
“...Certain abnormalities of a person's metabolism or hormones may also be responsible for the development of dementia, including the following ... Deficiency, or low body levels, of vitamin B12...”

Shiitake Mushrooms

...as a treatment
“...Function; Why it is Recommended: Primary chemical constituents of Shiitake include Polysaccharide, eritadenin, proteins, fatty acids, and vitamins D, B-2, B-12...”

Short Bowel Syndrome

...the condition
“...If anemia is present, this needs to be treated (with vitamin B-12, folic acid, and increased supplemental/dietary iron...”

Stomach Cancer

...our question about Vegetarian, vegan or raw-food diet
“An October, 2001 study by Yale School of Medicine researchers has found that a diet high in cholesterol, animal protein and vitamin B12 is linked to increased risk of a specific type of esophageal and stomach cancer, known as adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia, cases of which increased by 300% between the...”
...recommendation Plant-Based Nutrition
“An October, 2001 study by Yale School of Medicine researchers has found that a diet high in cholesterol, animal protein and vitamin B12 is linked to increased risk of a specific type of esophageal and stomach cancer, known as adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia, that has been increasing rapidly...”

Sulfite Sensitivity

...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Supplementation with B12 may reduce sulfite sensitivity...”

Susceptibility To Miscarriages

...the condition
“...Nutritional lack of vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid aggravate the problem...”
...recommendation CoQ10 (Ubiquinone)
“...Similar to methionine and homocysteine normalization, the production of coenzyme Q10 in the body also depends on folic acid, vitamin B12, and betaine...”

Syndrome X / Metabolic Syndrome

...recommendation Vitamin B-Complex
“Vitamin B complex (B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12) helps the body to maintain good energy levels and healthy cells...”

Tapeworm Infection

...the condition
“...Problems arise when the tapeworm becomes too large and starts blocking the bowel or robbing us of vital nutrients - the large tapeworms may cause deficiencies of vitamins such as B12 if left for too long...”

Test for B12 Levels

...as a treatment
Vitamin B12 levels are tested in different ways with different accuracies...”

Tinnitus

...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
“In one report, 47% of people with tinnitus and related disorders were found to have vitamin B12 deficiencies...”

TMG (Tri-methyl-glycine)

...as a treatment
“...[1] TMG lowers homocysteine levels with and without vitamins B12, B6 and folic acid...”

Urine MMA

...related topic
“The current gold standard for properly diagnosing B12 deficiency is the Urine MMA Level, due to the lack of sensitivity of the serum B12 test...”

Vegan Diet Consequences

...the condition
“...Vitamin B12...”
...relationship to Male Infertility (Low Sperm Count)
“Various theories have been proposed to explain reduced fertility among vegetarians and vegans: possible vitamin deficiencies (such as vitamin B12); increased use of soy (contains phyto-oestrogens); increased pesticide consumption through a diet high in fruits and vegetables...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
B12 supplementation is highly recommended for those on a vegan diet...”
...recommendation Test for B12 Levels
“For longer-term vegans who have not been too careful about consuming enough B12 (in the form of supplements or fortified foods), it would be wise to have B12 levels assessed and to commence dietary supplementation immediately...”

Vegetarian Diet Consequences

...the condition
“...Vitamin B12 is a genuine issue for strict vegetarians (vegans), although very easy to deal with...”
...relationship to Male Infertility (Low Sperm Count)
“...Various theories have been proposed to explain this reduced fertility: possible vitamin deficiencies (such as vitamin B12); increased use of soy (contains phyto-oestrogens); increased pesticide consumption through a diet high in fruits and vegetables...”
...recommendation Test for B12 Levels
“For longer-term vegetarians who have not been careful about consuming enough B12 (in the form of supplements or fortified foods), it may be wise to have B12 levels assessed and to consider dietary supplementation...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
B12 supplementation is generally recommended for those on a vegetarian diet...”

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)

...as a treatment
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) is an oxygen carrier; it decreases blood cholesterol; it metabolizes fat...”

Vitamin B12 Requirement

...the condition
“Your body needs vitamin B12 in order to create healthy red blood cells; it is absorbed through the intestines from a variety of foods...”
...our question about Broad-spectrum antibiotic use
“Excessive use of antibiotics or anti-convulsants can lead to B12 deficiency...”
...relationship to Osteoporosis - Osteopenia
“Researchers at the University of California devised a study to determine if low levels of vitamin B-12 might be associated with bone loss in older women...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“...The form of vitamin B12 known as hydroxocobalamin is given by injection into a muscle twice during the first week and then weekly until the anemia and all other symptoms of deficiency have been fully corrected...”

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

...as a treatment
“...It activates many enzymes and aids in the absorption of vitamin B12, in immune system function, and in antibody production...”

Vitamin B-Complex

...as a treatment
“...B-vitamins are part of a family that includes thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), folic acid (B9) and cobalamin (B12)...”

Vitamin B-Complex Requirement

...the condition
“...The eight vitamins are thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamine (B12), folic acid, pantothenic acid and biotin...”

Vitiligo

...the condition
“...Even though most people with vitiligo are in good general health, they are at greater risk of ... Pernicious anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency)...”
...recommendation Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
“Because many people with vitiligo also have stomach malfunction, they do not absorb vitamin B12 and folic acid very well...”
...recommendation Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
“See the links between Vitiligo and Vitamin B12, and between Vitiligo and Copper...”
...recommendation Folic Acid
“See the link between Vitiligo and Vitamin B12...”

Weakened Immune System

...the condition
“...A high-quality multivitamin and mineral supplement (especially B6, B12, folate, pantothenic acid, C, zinc, selenium, chromium, and manganese) can be an important starting point...”
...relationship to Vitamin B12 Requirement
“Impaired white blood cells response can be a sign of B12 deficiency...”

Weight Loss

...as a treatment
“...There is a risk from this procedure for nutritional deficiencies including malabsorption of vitamin B12, leading to anemia and iron deficiency...”

Weight Loss Surgery

...as a treatment
“...The post-surgery diet must focus on supplementing specific nutrients that are lost, for example protein, vitamin B12, iron, and calcium...”

Yeast / Candida Infection

...relationship to Megaloblastic Anemia / Pernicious Anemia
Vitamin B12, B6, biotin and folate help maintain candida in its non-invasive form...”