Manganese Requirement

Manganese Requirement: Overview

Manganese (Mn) is a micronutrient that is not often discussed.  Manganese is important for proper food digestion and for normal bone structure.  It also has also antioxidant, free-radical-fighting properties.

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Manganese is an essential trace mineral that plays and important part in normal brain functioning.  It is useful in the treatment of many nervous system disorders including Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia.  Our understanding of manganese is still incomplete.

Causes and Development

The increasing consumption of refined flours and sugars is the now the most common cause of low manganese levels.

Signs and Symptoms

Manganese deficiency had been linked to infertility, bone malformation, weakness, seizures, atherosclerosis, confusion, convulsions, eye problems, hearing problems, heart disorders, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, irritability, memory loss, muscle contractions, pancreatic damage, profuse perspiration, rapid pulse, tooth-grinding, tremors, fatigue, and osteoporosis.

Manganese deficiency symptoms include:

Treatment and Prevention

Zinc, iron and calcium supplementation have an antagonistic effect on manganese absorption.  These interactions suggest that taking multi-minerals that include manganese may protect against manganese deficiencies that might otherwise be triggered by taking those mineral supplements by themselves.

Signs, symptoms & indicators of Manganese Requirement:

Lab Values - Cells

Elevated MCH

Increased mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin are seen in cases of manganese deficiency.

Symptoms - General

Symptoms - Hair

Symptoms - Nails

Symptoms - Reproductive - General

Conditions that suggest Manganese Requirement:

Aging

Circulation

Atherosclerosis

Manganese strengthens arterial tissues, making them more resistant to plaque formation.

Lab Values

LDL/HDL Ratio, High

Manganese can help lower high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, with a particular effect on stabilizing LDL and decreasing its potential to form fatty plaques in the arteries.

High Total Cholesterol

See the link between Low HDL/LDL Cholesterol Ratio and Manganese Need.

Mental

Depression

Low blood manganese levels may accentuate depression.  A deficiency may contribute to depression stemming from low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine.

Musculo-Skeletal

Osteoarthritis

Bone cartilage can't grow or repair itself adequately without manganese – an essential part of glucosamine, which is in turn a major joint building block.  When glucosamine is in short supply, various forms of arthritis tend to arise, eventually leading to joint deterioration.

Osteoporosis - Osteopenia

Individuals with osteoporosis sometimes have low blood levels of manganese.  [Raloff J.  Reasons for boning up on manganese.  Science Sep 1986, 199 [review]]

Nervous System

Tardive Dyskinesia

Administration of the trace mineral manganese (at 15mg per day) may prevent the development of tardive dyskinesia and higher amounts (up to 60mg per day) may reverse tardive dyskinesia that has already developed.  [Manganese in dyskinesias.  Am J Psychiatry 1976; 133: p.105, Am J Psychiatry 1997; 134: p.1448]

Seizure Disorder

At least six different studies have confirmed that people who experience seizures have below normal manganese levels.  Epileptics have low whole blood and hair manganese levels, and those with the lowest manganese levels typically have the highest seizure activity.

Organ Health

Diabetes Type II

People with diabetes often have low manganese levels and this deficiency contributes to an inability to process sugars.  Supplementation improves glucose management in diabetics.  [Nature, 1962; 194: pp.188-89]

Counter-indicators
Cirrhosis of the Liver

Preliminary research suggests that individuals with cirrhosis may not be able to properly excrete manganese.  Until more is known, these people should not supplement manganese.  [Lancet 1995;346: pp.270-4]

Reproductive

Premenstrual Syndrome

In a double blind study of women with normal menstrual cycles, lower dietary manganese (1.0mg versus 5.6mg) was found to increase mood and pain symptoms during the premenstrual phase.  [Am J ObstetGynecol.  1993 May; 168(5): pp.1417-23]

Pregnancy-Related Issues

There is a risk of fetal malformations, including increases in neural tube defects, without an adequate amount of manganese.

Skin-Hair-Nails

Male Hair Loss

Mineral metabolism of 19 patients with hair loss was examined.  The analysis showed manganese deficiency in all 19.  Specific nutritional and mineral therapy resulted in improved hair growth after 2-3 months of treatment.  [Blaurock-Busch, E.  Wichtige Nahrstoffe fur Gesunde Haut und Haare, Kosmetik Internat.  3/87]

Female Hair Loss

Mineral metabolism of 19 patients with hair loss was examined.  The analysis showed manganese deficiency in all 19.  Specific nutritional and mineral therapy resulted in improved hair growth after 2-3 months of treatment.  [Blaurock-Busch, E.  Wichtige Nahrstoffe fur Gesunde Haut und Haare, Kosmetik Internat.  3/87]

Risk factors for Manganese Requirement:

Environment / Toxicity

Zinc Toxicity

An insidious effect of excess zinc over a period of years is the reduction of serum manganese, 90% of which is contained in the erythrocytes.

Supplements and Medications

Counter-indicators
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Manganese Requirement suggests the following may be present:

Nutrients

Manganese Requirement can lead to:

Lab Values

LDL/HDL Ratio, High

Manganese can help lower high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, with a particular effect on stabilizing LDL and decreasing its potential to form fatty plaques in the arteries.

High Total Cholesterol

See the link between Low HDL/LDL Cholesterol Ratio and Manganese Need.

Mental

Depression

Low blood manganese levels may accentuate depression.  A deficiency may contribute to depression stemming from low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine.

Nervous System

Tardive Dyskinesia

Administration of the trace mineral manganese (at 15mg per day) may prevent the development of tardive dyskinesia and higher amounts (up to 60mg per day) may reverse tardive dyskinesia that has already developed.  [Manganese in dyskinesias.  Am J Psychiatry 1976; 133: p.105, Am J Psychiatry 1997; 134: p.1448]

Organ Health

Diabetes Type II

People with diabetes often have low manganese levels and this deficiency contributes to an inability to process sugars.  Supplementation improves glucose management in diabetics.  [Nature, 1962; 194: pp.188-89]

Recommendations for Manganese Requirement:

Mineral

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